Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging - Tufts University
- Glycemic index - Investigate the intra-individual reproducibility and inter-individual variability of glycemic index value (GI) and glycemic load value (GL, product of the GI value of a food and its carbohydrate content) determinations for individual foods and food combinations on the basis of an individual's age, body composition and gender. The aim of this work is to determine whether GI and GL are useful auxiliary tools for providing dietary guidance to the general population.
- Nutrient Biomarkers
- Assess the association between body weight change and CVD risk indicators, and biomarkers of diet quality in children and their mothers/female guardians participating in a one year behavioral intervention study focused on children at high risk for obesity. The aim of this study is to generate objective data on the efficacy and effectiveness of this family based intervention for both children and family members and to help with the design and execution of future interventions targeting health disparities in minority communities, with specific emphasis on excess body weight and CVD risk.
- Assess the association between red blood cell fatty acid profiles and myocardial infarction in the Physicians Health Study II. The aim of the project is to determine the relationship between individual long-chain n-3 fatty acids (alpha-linolenic acid, stearidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids) and risk of myocardial infarction.
- Assess the relative predictive value of plasma nutrient biomarker concentrations on incidence of coronary heart disease or myocardial infarct using samples derived from the Women's Health Initiative and reconcile these data with those collected using food frequency questionnaires. The aim of this work is to determine whether in large population cohorts objective measures of nutrient intake (plasma biomarkers of food intake) are better predictors of cardiovascular disease outcome than subjective measures of food intake (food frequency questionnaires).
- Cardiovascular biomarkers, diets and genes - Assess the relationship of surrogate measures of cholesterol homeostasis (cholesterol absorption and synthesis), diet and genes on risk of developing cardiovascular disease using samples from the Framingham Offspring Study. The aim of this work is to determine whether surrogate measures of cholesterol homeostasis can predict individuals at elevated risk for developing cardiovascular disease with the intent of identifying individuals for whom early and intensive lifestyle modification would be most beneficial.
- Genetically modified/selectively bred vegetable oils ? Determine the effect of vegetable oils modified in fatty acid profile by genetic modification or selective breeding on cardiovascular disease indicators. The aim of this work is to determine whether unique vegetable oils developed by the food industry with the aim of increasing functionality impact on biological outcomes.
- Fatty acid metabolism - Determine in vivo fatty acid metabolism (absorption, transport, conversion and oxidation) in the fed and fasted state using stable isotopes labeled fatty acids in humans. The aim of this work is to determine the mechanistic basis for changes in plasma lipoprotein profiles following habituation to diets enriched in different types of fatty acids.
- Carbohydrate type and cardiovascular disease risk ? Determine the effect of different types of dietary carbohydrate on cardiovascular disease risk indicators. The aim of this work is to distinguish among the different forms of carbohydrate with specific emphasis on issues related to nutrient labeling.
- Animal models - Determine the effect of dietary fatty acids and cholesterol on genes which modulate lipoprotein metabolism using animal models. The aim of this work is to determine the underlying mechanisms for diet induced changes seen in cardiovascular disease risk indicators.
- Cell culture - Determine the molecular basis of cholesterol balance as modified by differences in fatty acid chain length, degree of saturation and glucose concentrations in cell culture.
- Systematic reviews - Evaluate the role of systematic reviews in establishing U.S. dietary guidance. The aim of this work is to develop efficient systems to summarize and integrate large amounts of nutrition-related data for use by expert panels tasked with establishing dietary guidance for the U.S. population.