APUA Publications

Reports

“AMROAR scientific meeting report on commensals as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance” (APUA and NBACC, Tufts University Health Sciences Campus, Boston, MA, June 2010).

“The need to improve antimicrobial use in agriculture: ecological and human consequences: a report of the Facts about Antibiotics in Animals and the Impact on Resistance (FAAIR) Project” Clin Infect. Dis. 34 Supplem. 3: S71-S144 (2002).

“Shadow epidemic: the growing menace of drug resistance. Executive summary of the 2005 GAARD report” (APUA, Boston, MA 2005).

The GAARD Report (complete) Clin Infect. Dis. 41 Supplem. 4 (2005).

“Facing the next pandemic of pan-resistant Gram-negative bacilli”. (APUA, Boston, MA 2004).

Articles

S. Levy. Antibiotic availability and use: consequences to man and his environment. J Clin Epidemiol. 44 Suppl 2: 83S-87S. (1991).

C. Cogliani, H. Goossens, C. Greko. Restricting antimicrobial use in food animals: lessons from Europe. Microbe 6, 6: 274-279. (2011).

T. O’Brien, J. Stelling. Integrated multilevel surveillance of the world’s infecting microbes and their resistance to antimicrobial agents. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 24, 2: 281-295. (2011).

M. Tucker. Cost of antibiotic resistance shifting from public to private payers. Sk. Aller. News. February 2010.

R.R. Roberts, B. Hota, I. Ahmad, R.D. Scott, S.D. Foster, F. Abbasi, S. Schabowski, L.M. Kampe, G.G. Ciavarella, M Supino, J Naples, R. Cordell, S.B. Levy, R.A.Weinstein. Hospital and societal costs of antimicrobial-resistant infections in a Chicago teaching hospital: implications for antibiotic stewardship. Clin Infect Dis. 49, 8: S1175-S1184. (2009).

C. Nweneka, N. Tapha-Sosseh, A. Sosa. Curbing the menace of antimicrobial resistance in developing countries. Harm Reduct J. 6, 31. (2009).

T. Edgar, S. Boyd, M. Palamé. Sustainability for behaviour change in the fight against antibiotic resistance: a social marketing framework. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 63, 2 : 230-237. (2009).

S. Levy, T. O’Brien. Global antimicrobial resistance alerts and implication. Clin Infect Dis. 41, 4: S219-S220. (2005).

Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics. Executive summary: global antimicrobial resistance alerts and implications. Clin Infect Dis. 41, 4: S221-S223. (2005).

Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics. Executive summary: select findings, conclusions, and policy recommendations. Clin Infect Dis. 41, 4: S224-S227. (2005).

J. Stelling, R. Jones, P. Turner, et al. Integrating Eschericia coli antimicrobial susceptibility data from multiple surveillance programs. Emer. Infect Dis. 11, 6: 873-82. (2005).

S. Levy, B. Marshall. Antibacterial resistance worldwide: causes, challenges, and responses. Nat Med. 10 Supplem. 12: S122-9. (2004).

S. DeVincent, C. Viola. Animal Antimicrobial Use Data Collection the United States: Methodological options. Prev Vet Med. 73, 2-3: 105-9. (2006).

Books

D. White, M. Alekshun, P. McDermott, Eds. Frontiers in Antimicrobial Resistance: A Tribute to Stuart B. Levy. (ASM Press, Washington, DC, 2005).

A. Sosa, D. Byarugaba, C. Amábile-Cuevas, et al. Antimicrobial Resistance in Developing Countries. (Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, New York, NY, 2010).

G. Hara, A. Sosa. Uso y Abuso de los Antibioticos. ¿Dónde Estamos o Adónde Queremos Llegar? (Arena, 2006).

S. Levy. The Antibiotic Paradox: How the Misuse of Antibiotics Destroys their Curative Powers. 2nd ed. (Perseus Publishing, Cambridge, MA 2002).

S. Foster in Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. D. Jamison, J. Breman, A. Measham et al. (Oxford University Press and the World Bank, New York, NY 2006). Chap. 72, pp. 1323-37.

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Promotional Material

Patient Behaviors and Beliefs Regarding Antibiotic Use: Implications for Clinical Practice - Poster 1

Patient Behaviors and Beliefs Regarding Antibiotic Use: Implications for Clinical Practice - Poster 2

APUA Presentations

Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance: synthesis of recommendations by expert policy groups. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2001.

APUA Newsletter

APUA World Congress

  • 2007 Program: Devising Improved Methods for Identification and Treatment of Infectious Diseases
  • 2006 Program:  Strengthening Society’s Infectious Disease Defenses: Accelerating Incentives for Research & Development


Research and Publications of APUA-affiliated Levy Laboratory

Invited Editorials and Commentaries

E1.  Levy, S.B. (1974)  Cat leukemia:  A threat to man?  New England J. Med. 290:513-514.

E2.  Levy, S.B. (1977)  Fecal flora in recurrent urinary tract infection.  New England J. Med. 295:813-814.

E3.  Levy, S.B. (1982)  Misuse threatens our precious antibiotics.  The Nation's Health, August, p.5.

E4.  Levy, S.B. (1983)  Antibiotic resistance.  Infection Control 4:195-197.

E5.  Levy, S.B. (1983) APUA: History and Goals; President's Message.  APUA Newsletter,1:1:1-2.

E6.  Levy, S.B. (1984)  Antibiotics in the environment:  threat vs. benefit.  The Antimicrobic Newsletter 1:11-14.

E7.  Levy, S.B. (1984)  Playing antibiotic pool: time to tally the score.  New England J. Med. 11:663-665.

E8.  Levy, S.B. (1984)  Stop Using Antibiotics to Fatten Livestock.  U.S.A. Today, September 11, p.10A.

E9.  Levy, S.B. (1985)  Man, animals and antibiotic resistance.  Pediatric Infectious Disease, IV:3-5.

E10.  Levy, S.B. (1985)  Perspective:  Forum for believers of antibiotic prudence.  Medical Tribune (July 17, 1985) p.29.

E11.  Levy, S.B. (1986) Perspective:  Are there no boundaries to antibiotic resistance spread? APUA Newsletter 4:4:3.

E12.  Levy, S.B. (1989) Commentary: Multidrug resistance - the challenge for the 90's. APUA Newsletter 7:4:2.

E13.  Levy, S.B. (1990) Starting life resistance-free.  New England J. Med. 323:335-337.

E14.  Levy, S.B. (1991) Looking back on a decade. APUA Newsletter 9:1:1-3.

E15.  Levy, S.B. (1993) Confronting multidrug resistance.  A role for each of us.  JAMA 269:1840-1842.

E16.  Levy, S.B. (1993) Detecting multidrug resistant tuberculosis early.  Lancet 341:664-665.

E17.  Levy, S.B. (1993)  Environmental reservoirs of antibiotic resistance.  Health and Environment Digest 7:4-5.

E18.  Levy, S.B. (1994)  Balancing the drug resistance equation.  Trends in Microbiology 2:341- 342.

E19.  Levy, S.B. (1996) Microbial threats and the global society.  Emerging Infectious Diseases 2:62-63.

E20.  Levy, S.B. (1996) Editorial: Antibiotic resistance worldwide: A Spanish task force responds.  Clin. Inf. Dis. 23:824-826.

E21.  Levy, S.B. (1998) Multidrug resistance: a sign of the times.  New Eng. J. Med. 338:1376-1378.

E22.  Levy, S.B. (1998) Antimicrobial resistance: bacteria on the defence.  BMJ 317: 612-613.

E23.  Levy, S.B. and J. Cruz (1999) Two Americas confront antibiotic resistance.  ASM News 65:132-133.

E24.  Levy, S.B. (1999) The first centennial and on to the next.  ASM News 65:258-259.

E25.  Levy, S.B. (2002) Antimicrobial consumer products: Where’s and What’s the risk?  Arch. of Dermatol. 138:1087-1088

E26.  Levy, S.B. (2005) Antibiotic resistance – The problem intensifies. Adv. Drug Delivery Reviews 57:1446-1450.

E27.  Levy, S.B. (2005). Are We Overusing Antibiotics? Food Tech. 11.05:88.

E28.  Levy, S.B. (2008) Genome size and antibiotic resistance. Antimicrobial Agents  Chemother. 62:2696

E29.  Carlet, J., P. Collignon, D. Goldmann, H. Goossens, I.C. Gyssens, S. Harbarth, V. Jarlier,  S.B. Levy, B. N’Doye, D. Pittet, R. Richtmann, W.H. Seto, J.W.M. van der Meer, A.  Voss (2011). Viewpoint: Society’s failure to protect a precious resource: antibiotics. The  Lancet  DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60401-7

E30.  Bush, K., P. Courvalin, G. Dantas … S.B. Levy, et al (2011). Perspective: Tackling  antibiotic resistance. Nature Rev. Medicine 9: 894-896

E31.  Berns, K. I., A. Casadevall, M. L. Cohen … S. B. Levy, et al. (2012). Policy Forum:  NSABB Recommendations of Communication of Experimental Adaptation of Avian  Influenza A/H5N1. Science: in press.

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Invited Reviews

R1.  Levy, S.B. (1982)  Microbial resistance to antibiotics: an evolving and persistent problem. Lancet I:83-88.

R2.  Parker, M.T., A.H. Linton, K.B. Sharma, S.B. Levy, et al. (1983) Antimicrobial Resistance. WHO Scientific Working Group on Antimicrobial Resistance.  Bull. WHO 61:383-394.

R3.  Parker, M.T., A.H. Linton, K.B. Sharma, S.B. Levy, et al. (1983)  Antimicrobial Resistance. Bull. WHO 61:423-433.

R4.  Levy, S.B. (1984)  L'evolution des resistances bacteriennes.  Surveillance locale et mondiale. Med. Mal. Infect. 14:779-787.

R5.  Levy, S.B. (1987)  Environmental dissemination of microbes and their plasmids.  Swiss Biotech. 5:32-37.

R6.  Levy, S.B., J. Burke, and C. Wallace (1987)  Epilogue: antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance worldwide.  Rev. of Inf. Dis. 9:S313-S316.

R7.  Levy, S.B. (1988)  Tetracycline resistance determinants are widespread.  ASM News 54:418-421.

R8.  Levy, S.B. (1989)  Evolution and spread of tetracycline resistance determinants.  J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 24:1-3.

R9.  Levy, S.B. (1991)  Antibiotic availability and use: consequences to man and his environment.  J. Clinical Epidemiology 44:S11:83S-87S.

R10.  Shlaes, D., S.B. Levy and G. Archer (1991)  Antimicrobial resistance:  new directions.  ASM News 57:1-4.

R11.  Levy, S.B. (1992)  Active efflux mechanisms for antimicrobial resistance.  Antimicrob. Agents and Chemother. 36:695-703.

R12.  Shlaes, D.M., D.N. Gerding, J.F. John, Jr., W.A. Craig, D.L. Bornstein, R.A. Duncan, M.R. Eckman, W.E. Farrer, W. H. Greene, V. Lorian, S.B. Levy, J.E. McGowan, Jr., S.M. Paul, J. Ruskin, F.C. Tenover, and C. Watanakunakorn (1997).  Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America and Infectious Diseases Society of America Joint Committee on the Prevention of Antimicrobial Resistance: Guidelines for the Prevention of Antimicrobial Resistance in Hospitals.  Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 18:275-291.

R13.  Alekshun, M., and S.B. Levy (1997).  Regulation of chromosomally mediated multiple antibiotic resistance: the mar regulon. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41:2067-2075.

R14.  Levy, S.B. (1998) The Challenge of Antibiotic Resistance.  Scientific American 278:46-53.

R15.  Levy, S.B. (1998) Biological warfare: Homo sapiens vs. bacteria.  Inf. Dis. Clin. Prac. 7 (Supp 3): S160-S167.

R16.  Levy, S.B. (1998) Fighting the specter of antibiotic resistance.  Inf. Dis. Clin. Pract. 7:261- 264.

R17.  Alekshun, M.N. and S. B. Levy (1999) The mar regulon: multiple resistance to antibiotics and other toxic insults.  Trends in Microbiol. 7:410-413.

R18.    Levy, S.B. (2000) Antibiotic and antiseptic resistance: impact on public health. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.     19: S120-122.

R19.   Barbosa, T. and S.B. Levy. (2000) The impact of antibiotic use on resistance development and persistence. Drug Res. Updates, 3 303-311.

R20.   Levy, S.B. (2000) The future of antibiotics: facing antibiotic resistance.  Clinical Microbiol. & Infect. Dis. 6 (suppl. 3): 101-106.

R21.   Hooten, T.M. and S.B. Levy (2001)  Antimicrobial resistance: a plan of action for community practice.  Amer. Family Physician. 63: 1087-1096.

R22.   Levy, S.B. (2001) Antibacterial household products: cause for concern.  Emerging Inf. Diseases 7 (suppl. 3): 512-515.

R23.  Levy, S.B. (2001) Antibiotic resistance: consequences of inaction.  Clinical Infect. Dis. 33: S124-S129.

R24.   Levy, S.B. (2002) The 2000 Garrod Lecture: Factors impacting the antibiotic resistance problem. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 49:25-30

R25.   Levy, S.B.  (2002) Active efflux, a common mechanism for biocide and antibiotic resistance.  J. Appl. Microb. 92:65S-71S

R26. Alekshun, M. & S.B. Levy (2004) The Escherichia coli Mar locus—antibiotic resistance and more. ASM News. 70:451-456

R27. Alekshun, M. & S.B. Levy (2004) Targeting virulence to prevent infection: to kill or not to kill? Drug Discovery Today: Therapeutic Strategies. 1:483-489

R28.  Levy, S.B. & B. Marshall (2004) Antibacterial resistance worldwide: Causes, challenges and responses. Nature Med. 10:S122-S129

R29. Alekshun, M. and S.B. Levy (2006). Commensals upon us. Biochem. Pharm. 71:893-900.

R30. Aiello, A.E., E.L. Larson and S.B. Levy (2007). Consumer antibacterial soaps: effective or just risky? Clinical Infect. Dis. 45: S137-47.

R31. Alekshun, M.N. and S.B. Levy (2007). Molecular mechanisms of antibacterial resistance. Cell. 128:1037-1050

R32. Marcel J-P, M. Alfa, F. Baquero, J. Etienne, H. Goossens, S. Harbarth, W. Hryniewicz, W. Jarvis, M. Kaku, R. Leclercq, S. Levy, D. Mazel, P. Nercelles, T. Perl, D. Pittet, C. Vandenbroucke-Grauls, N. Woodford, V. Jarlier. (2008) Healthcare-associated infections: think globally, act locally. Clin Microbiol and Infect Dis; 14:895-907.

R.33. Marshall, B.M., D.J. Ochieng, S.B. Levy. (2009). Commensals: underappreciated reservoir of antibiotic resistance. Microbe 4:231-238.

R.34. Marshall, B.M. and S.B. Levy (2011). Food animals and antimicrobials: impacts on human health. Cin Microb. Rev. 24: 718-733.

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Book Chapters

B1.  Levy, S.B. (1975)  The relation of tetracycline-induced R factor membrane protein to tetracycline resistance. In:  Drug-inactivating Enzymes and Antibiotic Resistances.  (Eds.Mitsuhashi, S., Rosival, L., Kremery, V.).  Berlin:  Springer-Verlag, 215-225.

B2.  Levy, S.B., G.B. FitzGerald and A.B. Macone (1977)  Effect of an antibiotic supplemented feed on the ecology of E. coli on a farm.  In:  Topics in Infectious Diseases II. R. Factors: Their Properties and Possible Control.  (J. Drews and G. Hogenauer, eds.)  Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp.43-61.

B3.  Levy, S.B., L. McMurry, P. Onigman and R.M. Saunders (1977)  Plasmid-mediated tetracycline resistance in E. coli.  In: Topics in Infectious Diseases II. R. Factors: Their Properties and Possible Control.  (J. Drews and G. Hogenauer, Eds.)  Berlin:  Springer- Verlag pp.181-207.

B4.  Levy, S.B., L.A. Blankstein, E.C. Vinton and T.J. Chambers (1979)  Biologic and biochemical characteristics of Friend leukemia cells representing different stages of a malignant process. In: Oncogenic Viruses and Host Cell Genes. (Ikawa, Y., Odaka, T., eds.)  Academic Press, pp.409-428.

B5.  Levy, S.B., K.E. Leonardson, R. Benezra, B.D. Stollar and K. Lapierre (1980) Compositional and structural changes in chromatin related to different malignant states of Friend leukemia cells.  In: In vivo and in vitro Erythropoiesis: The Friend System.  (Rossi, G.B., ed.) Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, pp.309-322.

B6.  Levy, S.B. (1981)  The tetracyclines:  microbial sensitivity and resistance.  In:  New Trends in Antibiotics: Research and Therapy.  (Eds. Grassi, G.G. and Sabath, L.D.)  Elsevier/North Holland, Amsterdam, pp.27-44.

B7.  Kline, B.C., R.W. Seelke, J.D. Trawick, S.B. Levy and J. Hogan (1982)  Genetic studies on the maintenance of mini F plasmids.  In: Drug Resistance in Bacteria - Genetics, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (Mitsuhashi, S., ed.)  Japan Scientific Soc. Press, Tokyo pp.27-37.

B8.  Levy, S.B. (1983)  "Medicine and Ecology in the Industrialized Nations."  In:  On the Fate of the Earth, pp. 326-331.  Earth Island Institute, San Francisco.

B9.  Levy, S.B. (1984)  Resistance to the tetracyclines.  In:  Antimicrobial Drug Resistance. (Bryan, L.E., ed.)  Academic Press pp.191-204.

B10. Levy, S.B. Survival of plasmids in Escherichia coli. (1984)  In: Genetic Manipulation:  Impact on Man and Society (Arber, W., Illmensee, K., Peacock, W.J. and Starlinger, P., eds.) P.C.S.U. Press, Miami, pp.19-28.

B11. Levy, S.B. (1985)  Human exposure and effects analyses for genetically-modified bacteria. In: The Suitability and applicability of risk assessment methods for environmental application of biotechnology.  (Covello, V.T. and Fiksel, J.R. eds.)  National Science Foundation, pp.B1-28.

B12. Levy, S.B. (1985)  Ecology of plasmids and unique DNA sequences.  In: Engineered Organisms in the Environment: Scientific Issues.  (Halvorson, H.O., Pramer, D. and Rogul, M., eds.)  ASM Press, pp.180-190.

B13. Levy, S.B. (1986)  Ecology of antibiotic resistance determinants.  In: Antibiotic Resistance Genes: ecology, transfer and expression (S.B. Levy and R.P. Novick, eds.)  Cold Spg. Harbor Press, NY, pp.17-29.

B14. Levy, S.B. (1986)  Human exposure and effects analysis for genetically modified bacteria. In:  Biotechnology Risk Assessment (Fiksel, J. and Covello, V.T., eds.) Pergamon Press, New York, pp.53-74.

B15. Levy, S.B. and B.M. Marshall (1988)  Genetic transfer in the natural environment.  In:The release of genetically-engineered micro-organisms (M. Sussman, C.H. Collins, F.A. Skinner and D.E. Stewart-Tull, eds.)  Academic Press, London, pp.61-76.

B16.  DeFlaun, M.F. and S.B. Levy. (1989)  Genes and their varied hosts.  In: Gene Transfer in the Environment (S.B. Levy and R.V. Miller eds).  McGraw-Hill, New York,  pp.1-32.

B17.  Miller, R.V. and S.B. Levy (1989)  Horizontal gene transfer in relation to environmental release of genetically engineered microorganisms.  In: Gene Transfer in the Environment (S.B. Levy and R.V. Miller eds).  McGraw-Hill, New York, pp.405-420.

B18.  Leonardson, K.E. and Levy, S.B. (1989)  Changes in chromatin structure temporally relate to tumorigenicity and inducibility of Friend cell types.  In: Viral Oncogenesis and Cell Differentiation: The contributions of Charlotte Friend (L. Diamond and S.R. Wolman eds.) Annals N.Y. Acad Sci 567:337-340.

B19.  Levy, S. B. (1990)  Multiple antibiotic resistance:  gene selection, function and spread. In:Microbial Determinants of Virulence and Host Response.  (E.M. Ayoub, G.H. Cassell, W.C. Branche, T.J. Henry, eds.) ASM Press, Washington, D.C., pp.377-387.

B20.  Marshall B. and S.B. Levy (1990)  Gene exchange in the natural environment.  In:Advances in Biotechnology (E. Heseltine, ed.) AB Boktryck HBG, Stockholm, pp.131-144.

B21.  Levy, S.B. (1994)  Strategies to prevent and combat the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance.  In Epidemiological Behaviour of Resistant Microorganisms, 7th SB Kurhaus Workshop on Antibiotics, Holland

B22.  Levy, S.B. (1995)  Antimicrobial resistance:  a global perspective.  In Antimicrobial resistance:  a crisis in health care (Jungkind, D. L.) J.E. Mortenson, H.S. Fraimow, G.B. Calandra, eds.)  Plenum Press, New York, pp. 1-13.

B23.  Bennish, M. and S.B. Levy. (1995)  Antimicrobial resistance of enteric pathogens. In:  Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract (M.J. Blaser, P.D. Smith, J.I. Ravdin, H.B. Greenberg, and R.L. Guerrant, eds.)  Raven Press, New York, pp. 1499-1524.

B24.  Levy, S.B. (1997).  Antibiotic resistance: an ecological imbalance.  In Antibiotic resistance: origins, evolution, selection and spread.  Wiley, Chichester, London (Ciba Foundation Symposium 207), pp. 1-14.

B25.  Levy, S.B. (1997).  The science of resistance.  In Resistant organisms: global impact on continuum of care.  (D.K. Henderson and S.B. Levy, eds.)  The Royal Society of Medicine Press, London, pp. 7-14.

B26.  Levy, S.B. (1997).  Clinical care.  In Resistant organisms: global impact on continuum of care.  (D.K. Henderson and S.B. Levy, eds.)  The Royal Society of Medicine Press, London, pp. 27-33.

B27.  Levy, S.B. and M. Nelson (1998) Reversing tetracycline resistance: a renaissance for the tetracycline family of antibiotics.  In: Resolving the Antibiotic Paradox: Progress in Understanding Drug Resistance and Development of New Antibiotics (Rosen, B.P. and S. Mobashery, eds.)  New York, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, pp. 17-26.

B28.  McMurry, L.M. and S.B. Levy (2000) Tetracycline resistance in gram-positive bacteria. In: Gram Positive Pathogens (Fischetti, V., R. Novick, J. Ferretti, D. Portnoy and J.Rood, eds.), pp. 660-677.  ASM Press. Washington, D.C.

B29.  Alekshun, M.N. and S.B. Levy (2000) Chapter 22. Bacterial drug resistance: response to survival threats.  In: Bacterial Stress Responses (Storz, G., and R. Hengge-Aronis, eds.), ASM Press, Washington, DC, pp. 323-366.

B30.  Levy, S.B. (2000) Pursuing drug resistance.  In: Many Faces -- Many Microbes (Atlas, R., ed.).  ASM Press, Washington, DC, pp. 127-132.

B31.   Levy, S.B. (2001) Ecological consequences of antibiotic use in people, animals and agriculture. In Antimicrobial Resistance (L. Soulsby and R. Wilbur eds.) Royal Society of Medicine Press, London. p. 55-60.

B32. Levy, S.B. (2001), Genetics of resistance to antibiotics. In Encyclopedia of Genetics (S. Brenner and J.H. Miller, eds). Academic Press, London, p. 1687

B33. Levy, S.B. (2001) Executive Summary, Introduction and Conclusions. In Antibiotic Resistance: Synthesis of recommendations by expert policy groups (S.B. Levy and APUA eds). World Health Organization, Geneva, pp 1-15; 81-83.

B34. Vila, J. and S.B. Levy. (2003) “Antibiotic Resistance” in Travellers’ Diarrhea. (C.D. Ericsson, H.L. Dupont and R. Steffen, eds.) B.C. Decker, Inc. (London) pp 58-75

B35. Levy, S.B. (2003). Antibiotic resistance, 1992-2002: A decade’s journey. In IOM Forum on Emerging Infections workshop The resistance phenomenon in microbes and infectious disease vectors (S.L. Knobler, S.M. Lemon, M. Najafi, and T. Burroughs, eds.) The National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

B36.    McMurry, L.M. and S.B. Levy. (2006) Tetracycline resistance determinants in gram positive bacteria, in: Gram Positive Pathogens (Fischetti, V., R. Novick, J. Ferretti, D. Portnoy and J. Rood, eds.) ASM Press, Washington D.C., 801-820.

B37. Vila, J., D.G. White, P.F. McDermott and S.B. Levy. (2008) Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobials In Travellers’ Diarrhea 2nd ed. (C.D. Ericsson, H.L. Dupont and R. Steffen, eds.) B.C. Decker, Inc. (London) pp 43-57

B38. Levy, S.B. (2008) The challenge of antibiotic resistance In: Infectious Disease: A Scientific American Reader. pp. 299-313 Univ of Chicago Press, Chicago 2008.

B39. Levy, S.B. (2010) Responding to the global antibiotic resistance crisis: the APUA chapter network. In: Antimicrobial Resistance: Implications for global health and novel intervention strategies. E.R. Choffnes, D.A. Relman, and A. Mash, eds. National Academies Press, Wash. D.C., 222-232.    

B40. Nelson, M.L. & S.B. Levy (2011). Tetracycline and tetracycline derivatives. In: Computational Biotechnology (second edition), M. Moo-Young, ed. 269-283.

B41. Levy, S.B. (2011) Introduction. In: Antimicrobial resistance in the environment (2011) P.L. Keen and M.H.M.M. Montforts, eds. John Wiley and Sons, pp 3-6.

B42. Nelson, M.L. and S.B. Levy (2012). The history of the tetracyclines. In: Antimicrobial Therapeutic Reviews (K. Bush, Ed.) N.Y. Acad. Science, New York. (in press)

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Guest Editorship

Levy, S.B., J. Burke and C. Wallace (1987)  Antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance worldwide. 
Rev. of Infectious Diseases Vol. 9, Supplement 3.

Levy, S.B. (1994)  Drug resistance: the new apocalypse. Trends in Microbiology. Vol. 2, pp.
341-425. 

Levy, S.B. and T. O’Brien, (2005) Global antimicrobial resistance alerts and implications. Clin Infect Dis Vol. 41, Supplement 4. pp.S219-S288

Books

Levy, S.B., R.C. Clowes and E.L. Koenig (eds.) (1981)  Molecular Biology, Pathogenicity and Ecology of Bacterial Plasmids.  Plenum Publishing Corp., New York.

Levy, S.B. and R.P. Novick (eds.) (1986) Antibiotic Resistance Genes: ecology, transfer and expression.  Cold Spring Harbor, New York.

Levy, S.B. and R.V. Miller (eds.) (1989) Gene Transfer in the Environment.  McGraw Hill, New York.

Levy, S.B. (1992) The Antibiotic Paradox.  How miracle drugs are destroying the miracle. Plenum Publishing Corp., New York.

Henderson, D.K. and S.B. Levy (eds) (1997).  Resistant organisms: global impact on continuum of care.  The Royal Society of Medicine Press, London.

Levy, S.B. (1995) The Antibiotic Paradox: How miracle drugs are destroying the miracle.      (Korean edition).

Levy, S.B. (1999) Le paradoxe des antibiotiques (revised French edition of The Antibiotic Paradox).  Editions Belin, Paris, France.

Levy, S.B., Alliance for Prudent Use of Antibiotics (eds) (2001) Antibiotic resistance: Synthesis of recommendations by expert policy groups, World Health Organization, Geneva

Levy, S.B. (2002) The Antibiotic Paradox: How misuse of antibiotics destroys their curative powers. Perseus Books, Boston

Levy, S.B. (2004) The Antibiotic Paradox: How misuse of antibiotics destroys their curative powers. (Chinese edition). Business Weekly Publications.

Levy, S.B. (2007) Antibiotic Paradox: How misuse of antibiotics destroys their curative powers. (Antioticky Paradox) Czech edition, Galileo.


Book Forewords/Prefaces

Levy, S.B. (2001) In: Tetracyclines in Biology, Chemistry and Medicine. (M. Nelson, W. Hillen, R.A. Greenwald, eds, pp. ix-x) Birkhäusen Verlag, Basel

Levy, S.B. (2004) In: Use and misuse of antibiotics: Where are we and where we want to go (G. Levy Hara, ed) (in Spanish)

Levy, S.B. (2005 Forward in: Antibiotic Policies: Theory & Practice, (Gould, I.M. and J.W. van der Meer, eds) Kluwer/Plenum Publishers, London v-vii

Levy, S.B. (2005) In Antibiotics Antibacterials and antifungal Agents. (A. Bryskier) ASM Press, Washington D.C. xxi-xxii.

Levy, S.B. (2005) Introduction In: Frontiers in Antimicrobial Resistance: A Tribute to Stuart B. Levy (D. G White, Michael N Alekshun & Patrick F McDermott, eds), pp xvii-xviii.

Levy, S.B. (2006) Prologue in: Uso y Abuso de los Antibióticos: ¿Dónde estamos y adónde queremos llegar?. (Gabriel, Levy, Hara, Sosa) Arena, Montevideo, Uruguay. 5.

Levy, S.B. (2009) Forward in “Antimicrobial Resistance in developing countries” (Sosa, A.; Byarugaba, D.K.; Amabile-Cuevas, C.F.; Hsueh, P.-R.; Kariuki, S.; Okeke, I. Eds.) Springer Press.

Levy, S.B. (2010) Introduction in Antibiogram (P. Courvalin, R. Leclercq, L.B. Rice, eds). ASM Press, pp 15-16.

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Published Correspondence and Discussions

Levy, S.B. (1982)  Bacterial resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.  New England J. Med.
307:61.

Levy, S.B. (1983) Fermentation products in animal health:  why published?  ASM News 9:129.

Levy, S.B. (1984) Prudent antibiotics.  Nature 307:205.

Levy, S.B. (1984) In: Molecular and Cellular Approaches to Understanding Mechanisms of
Toxicity (A. Tashjian, Jr., Ed.) pp.82-86.  Harvard University.

Levy, S.B. (1984) Drug-resistant Salmonella from animals fed antimicrobials.  New England J.
Med. 311:1700.

Levy, S.B. (1985) Antibiotics in animals.  Nature 313:344.

Levy, S.B., B.E. Murray and T.F. O'Brien (1987)  "Worldwide Antibiotic Resistance" In:
Conversations in Infection Control. (Goldmann, D., ed.)

Levy, S.B. (1993) Antibiotic use and resistance:  clinical and microbiologic considerations.  J.
Chemother. 5 (suppl.1), 302, 1993.

Levy, S.B. et al.  (1993) Symposium:  Microbiological significance of drug residues in food. 
Vet. Human Toxicology 35:Sup 1:28-31; 47-48.

Levy, S.B. and A. Salyers (1998) New Network To Monitor Antibiotic Resistance Gene Trends.
ASM News 64/3:124.

Levy, S.B. and L.M. McMurry (1999) Reply: Efficacy of triclosan.  American J. Infect. Control
27:73-74.

Levy, S.B. (2001) Antimicrobial resistance potential. The Lancet. 358:1099-1101.

Levy, S.B. (2002) Carriage of antibiotic-resistant fecal bacteria in Nepal. J. Infec. Dis. 185:1542

Levy, S.B. (2004) Biocides in the Home. ASM News. 70:257

Levy, S.B. (2005) Bacteremia among Kenyan children. N. Eng J Med 352:1379.

Levy, S.B., L. McMurry and M. Roberts (2005) Hybrid Tet proteins. Antimicrob. Agents
Chemother. 49: 3099

Levy, S.B. (2006) Mechanisms for Resistance in Soil. Science 312:529.

Levy S.B. (2008) Genome Size and Antibiotic Resistance. Antimicrob. Agents and Chemother.  52:2696

Levy S.B. (2008) Antibiotic-digesting bacteria to clean up the environment. Microbe 3:357

Marshall, B.M. and S.B. Levy (2012). Opinion: Low-dose antibiotics in animal feed fuels drug resistance problem in human infectious diseases. The Scientist (in press)

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Publications

1.  Levy, S.B. (1964)  Isologous interference with ultraviolet and X-ray irradiated bacteriophage T2.  J. Bacteriol. 87:1330-1338.

2.  Levy, S.B. and T. Watanabe (1966)  Mepacrine and transfer of R factor.  Lancet 2:1138.

3.  Takano, I., S. Sato, S.B. Levy and T. Watanabe (1966)  Episomic resistance factors in Enterobacteriaceae.  34.  The specific effects of the inhibitors of DNA synthesis on the transfer of R factor and F factor.  Med. Biol. (Tokyo)  73:79-83.

4.  Levy, S.B. (1967)  Blood safari into Kenya.  The New Physician 16:50-54.

5.  Levy, S.B., W.T. Fitts and J.B. Leach (1967)  Surgical treatment of diverticular disease of the colon:  Evaluation of an eleven-year period.  Annals Surg.  166:947-955.

6.  Levy, S.B. and L. Leive (1968)  A rapid equilibrium between two fractions of lipopolysaccharide in Escherichia coli.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.  (U.S.A.) 61:1435-1439.

7.  Levy, S.B. (1969)  Tribal hemoglobin differences in Kenya.  A survey of eight tribes in seventeen areas of the country.  Amer. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 18:138-146.

8.  Levy, S.B., B. Meyers and H. Mellin (1969)  Reversible granulocytopenia in a patient with polycythemia vera taking nitrofurantoin.  J. Mt. Sinai Hosp. 1:26-29.

9.  Levy, S.B. and L. Leive (1970)  Release from Escherichia coli of a galactosyltransferase complex active in lipopolysaccharide synthesis.  J. Biol. Chem. 245:585-594.

10.  Willerson, J.T., R.I. Trelstad, T. Pincus, S.B. Levy and S.M. Wolff (1970)  Subcellular localization of Salmonella enteritidis endotoxin in liver and spleen of mice and rats.  Infect. Immun. 1:440-445.

11.  Levy, S.B. (1970)  Resistance of minicells to penicillin lysis:  A method of obtaining large quantities of purified minicells.  J. Bacteriol. 103:836-839.

12.  Levy, S.B. and P. Norman (1970)  Segregation of transferable R factors into Escherichia coli minicells.  Nature 277:606-607.

13.  Levy, S.B. (1971)  Studies of R factors segregated into E. coli minicells.  Annals New York Acad. Sci.  182:217-225.

14.  Levy, S.B. (1971)  Physical and functional characteristics of R factor DNA segregated into E. coli minicells.  J. Bacteriol. 108:300-308.

15.  Levy, J.A., S.B. Levy, Y. Hirshaut, G. Kafuko and A.M. Prince (1971)  Presence of EBV antibodies in wild chimpanzees.  Nature 233:559-560.

16.  Levy, S.B. and L. McMurry (1974)  Detection of an inducible membrane protein associated with R-factor-mediated tetracycline resistance.  Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 56:1060- 1068.

17.  Levy, S.B. (1974)  Use of mucoid bacterial mutants to circumvent clumping of cells and minicells containing R-plasmids derepressed for pilus synthesis.  J. Bacteriol. 120:534- 535.

18.  Levy, S.B. (1974)  R factor proteins synthesized in E. coli minicells.  Incorporation studies with different R factors and detection of DNA-binding proteins.  J. Bacteriol. 120:1451-
1453.

19.  Levy, S.B., L. McMurry and E. Palmer (1974)  R factor proteins synthesized in E. coli minicells. Membrane-associated R factor proteins.  J. Bacteriol. 120:1464-1471.

20.  Levy, S.B. (1975)  Very stable procaryotic messenger RNA in chromosomeless Escherichia coli minicells.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (U.S.A.) 72:2900-2904.

21.  Levy, S.B., C.B. Rubenstein and C. Friend (1976)  The spleen in Friend leukemia:  I.  Prolonged survival of leukemic mice after auto-implantation of spleen tissue. J. Nat. Cancer. Inst. 56:1183-1189.

22.  Levy, S.B., C.B. Rubenstein and M. Tavassoli (1976)  The spleen in Friend leukemia.  II. Nonleukemic nature of spleen stroma.  J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 56:1189-1195.

23.  Levy, S.B. (1976)  A histological stain for detecting Friend leukemic cells in fixed hemopoietic tissue.  Arch. Path. Lab. Med. 10:463-464.

24.  Levy, S.B., G.B. FitzGerald, and A.B. Macone (1976)  Spread of antibiotic resistance plasmids from chicken to chicken and from chicken to man.  Nature 260:40-42.

25.  Blankstein, L.A. and S.B. Levy (1976)  Changes in histone f2a2 associated with proliferation of Friend leukemic cells.  Nature 260:638-640.

26.  Levy, S.B., G.B. FitzGerald and A.B. Macone (1976)  Changes in intestinal flora of farm personnel after introduction of tetracycline-supplemented feed on a farm.  New Eng. J. Med. 295:583-588.

27.  Yang, H-L, G. Zubay and S.B. Levy (1976)  Synthesis of an R plasmid protein associated
with tetracycline resistance is negatively regulated.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (U.S.A.) 
73:1509-1512.

28.  Levy, J.A., S.B. Levy, and W. Levinson (1976)  Inactivation of murine RNA tumor viruses by isatin beta-thiosemicarbazone, its derivatives and analogs.  Virology 74:426-431.

29.  Jacquet, M., S.B. Levy, B. Robert and F. Gros (1977)  Chromatin transcription  I. Quantitative determination of gene specific RNA by use of bacterial plasmids containing the eukaryotic DNA sequence or viral DNA.  Gene 1:373-383.

30.  Blankstein, L.A., B.D. Stollar, S.G. Franklin, A. Zweidler and S.B. Levy (1977)  Biochemical and immunological characterization of two distinct variants of histone H2a in Friend leukemia.  Biochemistry 16:4557-4562.

31.  Levy, S.B. and L. McMurry (1978)  Probing the expression of plasmid-mediated tetracycline resistance in E. coli.  Microbiology pp.177-180.

32.  McMurry, L.M. and S.B. Levy (1978)  Two transport systems for tetracycline in sensitive Escherichia coli: critical role for an initial rapid uptake system insensitive to energy inhibitors.  Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 14:201-209.

33.  Levy, S.B., N. Sullivan and S.L. Gorbach (1978)  Pathogenicity of conventional and debilitated E. coli K-12.  Nature 274:395-396.

34.  Levy, S.B. (1978)  Emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in the intestinal flora of farm inhabitants.  J. of Inf. Dis. 137:688-690.

35.  Levy, S.B. and L. McMurry (1978)  Plasmid-mediated tetracycline resistance involves alternative transport systems for tetracycline.  Nature 276:90-92.

36.  Levy, S.B. and B. Marshall (1979)  Survival of E. coli host-vector systems in the human intestinal tract.  Recombinant DNA Technical Bulletin 2:77-80.

37.  Mendez, B., C. Tachibana and S.B. Levy  (1980)  Heterogeneity of tetracycline resistance determinants.  Plasmid 3:99-108.

38.  Schluederberg, S.A., B. Marshall, C. Tachibana and S.B. Levy (1980)  Recovery frequency of phages and M13 from human and animal feces.  Nature 283:792-794.

39.  Weinberg, M.S., C.A. Ellis and S.B. Levy (1980)  Nutritionally deficient Streptococcus: Investigation of the hidden culprit in culture negative endocarditis.  Southern Medical Journal 73:1647-1649.

40.  Marshall, B. and S.B. Levy (1980)  Prevalence of amber suppressor-containing coliforms in the natural environment.  Nature 286:524-525.

41.  McMurry, L.M., R. Petrucci and S.B. Levy (1980)  Active efflux of tetracycline encoded by
four genetically different tetracycline resistance determinants in E. coli.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (U.S.A.) 77:3974-3977.

42.  Levy, S.B., B. Marshall, A. Onderdonk and D. Rowse-Eagle (1980)  Survival of E. coli host-vector systems in the mammalian intestine.  Science 209:391-394.

43.  Blankstein, L.A., B.D. Stollar and S.B. Levy (1980)  Immunochemical distinctions among histones and their variants in a solid phase radioimmunoassay.  Analytical Biochem. 104:168-172.

44.  Ferrazza, D. and S.B. Levy (1980)  Biochemical and immunological characterization of an R plasmid-encoded protein with properties resembling those of major cellular outer membrane proteins.  J. Bacteriol. 144:149-158.

45.  Ferrazza, D. and S.B. Levy (1980)  Biosynthesis of a plasmid-encoded outer membrane surface exclusion protein involves processing from a precursor polypeptide.  J. Biol. Chem. 255:8955-8958.

46.  Leonardson, K. and S.B. Levy (1980)  Organizational changes in chromatin in different malignant stages of Friend erythroleukemia.  Nucleic Acids Res. 8:5317-5331.

47.  Onderdonk, A, B. Marshall, R. Cisneros and S.B. Levy (1981)  Competition between congenic Escherichia coli K-12 strains in vivo.  Infect. and Immun. 32:74-79.

48.  Benezra, R., L.A. Blankstein, B.D. Stollar and S.B. Levy (1981)  Immunological and organizational heterogeneity of histone H2a variants within chromatin of cells at different stages of Friend leukemia.  J. Biol. Chem. 256:6837-6841.

49.  Froussard, P., L. Tempelis and S.B. Levy (1981)  Histone variant composition of normal and leukemic human lymphocytes:  Analysis of gel electrophoresis of whole cells and nuclei. British J. Haem. 49:275-282.

50.  McMurry, L.M., J. Cullinane, R.J. Petrucci and S.B. Levy (1981)  Active uptake of tetracycline in membrane vesicles of sensitive E. coli.  Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 20:307-313.

51.  Marshall, B., S. Schluederberg, C. Tachibana and S.B. Levy (1981)  Survival and transfer in the human gut of poorly mobilizable (pBR322) and of transferable plasmids from the same carrier E. coli.  Gene 14:145-154.

52.  Levy, S.B. and B. Marshall (1981)  Risk assessment studies of E. coli host-vector systems. Recombinant DNA Bulletin 4:91-98.

53.  Levy, S.B. (1981)  Survey of a conference:  turista or not turista?  In: Molecular Biology, Pathogenicity and Ecology of Bacterial Plasmids.  (Levy, S.B., Clowes, R.C., Koenig, E.L., Eds.)  Plenum Press, New York, pp. 676-677.

54.  Vinton, E.C., J.M. Woytowicz and S.B. Levy (1982)  Biologic characteristics of Type C viruses isolated from different erythroleukemic cells in polycythemic Friend murine leukemia.  J. Gen. Virology 59:73-81.

55.  Curiale, M.S. and S.B. Levy (1982)  Two complementation groups mediate tetracycline resistance determined by Tn10.  J. Bacteriol. 151:209-215.

56.  Hogan, J.E., B.C. Kline and S.B. Levy (1982)  Regions of the F plasmid which affect plasmid maintenance and the ability to segregate into Escherichia coli minicells.  Plasmid 81:36-44.

57.  McMurry, L.M., J.C. Cullinane and S.B. Levy (1982)  Transport of the lipophilic analog minocycline differs from that of tetracycline in susceptible and resistant Escherichia coli. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 22:791-799.

58.  Crooks, J.H., M. Ullman, M. Zoller and S.B. Levy (1983)  Transcription of plasmid DNA in Escherichia coli minicells.  Plasmid 10:66-72.

59.  Rashtchian, A., J.H. Crooks and S.B. Levy (1983)  Tra-J independence of expression of TraT on F.  J. Bacteriol. 54:1009-1012.

60.  George, A.M. and S.B. Levy (1983)  Amplifiable resistance to tetracycline, chloramphenicol and other antibiotics in Escherichia coli: identification of a non-plasmid mediated efflux system for tetracycline.  J. Bacteriol 155:531-540.

61.  George, A.M. and S.B. Levy (1983)  A gene in the major co-transductional gap of the Escherichia coli K-12 linkage map required for the expression of chromosomal resistance to tetracycline, chloramphenicol and other antibiotics.  J. Bacteriol. 155:541-548.

62.  Woytowicz, J.M., P.R. Daoust, J. Andre-Schwartz and S.B. Levy (1983) Expression of multiple isozymes of granulocyte, monocyte and macrophage esterases in polycythemic Friend erythroleukemia cells.  Blood 62:425-432.

63.  McMurry, L.M., D. Aronson and S.B. Levy (1983)  Susceptible Escherichia coli cells can actively excrete tetracyclines.  Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 24:544-551.

64.  Marshall, B., C. Tachibana and S.B. Levy (1983)  Frequency of tetracycline resistance determinant classes among lactose-fermenting coliforms.  Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 24:835-840.

65.  Curiale, M., L.M. McMurry and S.B. Levy (1984)  Intracistronic complementation of the tetracycline resistance membrane protein specified by Tn10.  J. Bacteriol. 157:211-217.

66.  Levy, S.B., A. Buu-Hoi and B. Marshall (1984)  Transposon Tn10-like tetracycline resistance determinants in Hemophilus parainfluenzae.  J. Bacteriol. 160:87-94.

67.  Levy, S.B. (1984)  Antibiotic resistant bacteria in food of man and animals.  In:  Antimicrobials and Agriculture:  (Woodbine, M., ed.) Butterworths, London pp. 525-531.

68.  Marshall, B., M. Roberts, A. Smith, and S.B. Levy (1984)  Homogeneity of transferable tetracycline resistance determinants in Hemophilus species.  J. Infect. Dis. 149:1028- 1029.

69.  McMahon, G., J.L. Alsina and S.B. Levy (1984)  Induction of a (Ca+2, Mg+2)-dependent endonuclease activity during the early stages of murine erythroleukemic cell differentiation. Proc. Nat'l. Acad. Sci. (U.S.A.) 81:7461-7465.

70. McMahon, G., J.L. Alsina and S.B. Levy (1985)  (Ca+2, Mg +2)-dependent endonuclease activity in different subpopulations of spleen cells from normal and erythroleukemic mice.  Exp. Cell Res. 157:462-474.

71.  Rolland, R., G. Hausfater, B. Marshall and S.B. Levy (1985)  Increased frequency of antibiotic resistant gut flora in wild baboons in contact with human refuse.  Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 49:791-794.

72.  Levy, S.B., R. Hedges, F. Sullivan, A. Medeiros and H. Sosroseputro (1985)  Characterization of antibiotic resistance plasmids in coliforms isolated from diarrheal specimens of hospitalized children of Indonesia.  J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 16:7-16.

73.  Rashtchian, A., S.W. Brown, J. Reichler and S.B. Levy (1986)  Plasmid segregation into minicells is associated with membrane attachment and independent of plasmid eplication. J. Bacteriol. 165:82-87.

74.  McMurry, L.M., M. Hendricks and S.B. Levy (1986)  Effects of toluene permeabilization and cell deenergization on tetracycline resistance in Escherichia coli.  Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 29:681-686.

75.  Bradley, D.E., D.E. Taylor, S.B. Levy, D.R. Cohen, E.C. Brose and J. Whelan (1986)  pIN32: a cointegrate plasmid with IncHI2 and IncFII components.  J. Gen. Microb. 132:1339-1346.

76.  Marshall, B., S. Morrissey, P. Flynn and S.B. Levy (1986)  A new tetracycline resistance determinant, Class E, isolated from Enterobacteriaceae.  Gene 50:111-117.

77.  Wleklik, M., S.B. Levy, M. Luczak, and V.A. Najjar (1986)  Suppression of Friend virus- induced leukemia in mice by tuftsin.  J. Gen. Virol. 67:2001-2004.

78.  Levy, S.B. (1987)  Antibiotic use for growth promotion in animals: ecologic and public health consequences.  J. Food Protection 50:616-620.

79.  Heuer, C., R.K. Hickman, M.S. Curiale, W. Hillen and S.B. Levy (1987) Constitutive expression of tetracycline resistance mediated by a Tn10-like element in Hemophilus parainfluenzae results from a mutation in the repressor gene.  J. Bacteriol. 169:990-994.

80.  McMurry, L.M. and S.B. Levy (1987)  Tn5 insertion in the polynucleotide phosphorylase (pnp) gene in Escherichia coli increases susceptibility to antibiotics.  J. Bacteriol. 169:1321-1324.

81.  Fox, H.B., P. deTogni, G. McMahon, S.B. Levy, J.S. Robinson, M.J. Karnovsky and B. M. Babior (1987)  Fate of the DNA in plasmid-containing E. coli minicells ingested by human neutrophils.  Blood 69:1394-1400.

82.  Ardman, B., E. DiMambro, S.B. Levy, and R.S. Schwartz (1987)  Idiotype mimicry by a differentiation antigen on Friend erythroleukemia cells.  J. Immunol. 139:2038-2043.

83.  DiMambro, E., M. Galanti and S.B. Levy (1987)  Precommitted erythroid cells enriched in cultures of suboptimally induced Friend erythroleukemia cells.  Blood 70:1565-1571.

84.  Park, B.H., M. Hendricks, M.H. Malamy, F.P. Tally and S.B. Levy (1987)  A cryptic tetracycline resistance determinant (Class F) from Bacteroides fragilis mediates resistance in Escherichia coli by actively reducing tetracycline accumulation. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31:1739-1743.

85.  McMurry, L., B.H. Park, V. Burdett and S.B. Levy (1987)  Energy-dependent efflux mediated by Class L (Tet L) tetracycline resistance determinant from streptococci.  Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31:1648-1650.

86.  De Togni, P., H.B. Fox, S. Morrissey, S.B. Levy and B.M. Babior (1988) Plasmids in bacteria exposed to activated neutrophils mediate mutagenesis when transferred to new hosts.  Blood 71:463-466.

87.  Hickman, R. and S.B. Levy (1988)  Evidence that TET protein functions as a multimer in the inner membrane of Escherichia coli.  J. Bacteriol. 170:1715-1720.

88.  Cohen, S.P., D.C. Hooper, J.S. Wolfson, K.S. Souza, L.M. McMurry, S. B. Levy (1988) Endogenous active efflux of norfloxacin in susceptible Escherichia coli.  Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32:1187-1191. 

89.  Marshall, B.M., P.A. Flynn, D. Kamely and S.B. Levy (1988)  Survival of Escherichia coli with and without Col E1::Tn5 after aerosol dispersal in a laboratory and a farm environment. Appl. Env. Microb. 54:1776-1783.

90.  DePaola, A., P.A. Flynn, R.M. McPhearson and S.B. Levy (1988)  Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of tetracycline and oxytetracycline resistant Aeromonas from cultured channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and their environments.  Appl. Env. Microb. 54:1861-1863.

91.  Cohen, S.P., L.M. McMurry and S.B. Levy (1988)  The marA locus causes decreased expression of OmpF porin in multiple antibiotic resistant (Mar) mutants of Escherichia coli.  J. Bacteriol. 170:5416-5422.

92.  Compeau, G., B.J. Al-Achi, E. Platsouka, and S.B. Levy (1988)  Survival of rifampin resistant mutants of P. fluorescens and P. putida in soil systems.  Appl. Env. Microb. 54:2432-2438.

93.  Park, B.H. and S.B. Levy (1988) The cryptic tetracycline resistance determinant on Tn4400 mediates tetracycline degradation as well as tetracycline efflux.  Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32:1797-1800.

94.  Levy, S.B., B. Marshall, S. Schluederberg, D. Rowse and J. Davis (1988)  High frequency of antimicrobial resistance in human fecal flora.  Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32:1801-1806.

95.  De Togni, P., E.S. Fox, S. Morrissey, B. M. Babior, and S.B. Levy (1988) Spontaneous insertion of an IS2 element into the promoter region of the lac operon.  Plasmid 20:143-147.

96.  Leonardson, K.E. and S.B. Levy (1989)  Chromatin reorganization during emergence of malignant Friend tumors: early changes in histone H2A and H2B variants and nucleosome repeat length.  Exp. Cell Research 180:209-219.

97.  Cohen, S.P., L.M. McMurry, D.C. Hooper, J.S. Wolfson  and S.B. Levy (1989) Cross- resistance to fluoroquinolones in multiple antibiotic resistant (Mar) Escherichia coli selected by tetracycline or chloramphenicol: decreased drug  accumulation associated with membrane changes in addition to OmpF reduction. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:1318-1325.

98.  Levy, S.B., L.M. McMurry, V. Burdett, P. Courvalin, W. Hillen, M.C. Roberts and D.E. Taylor (1989) Nomenclature for tetracycline resistance determinants. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:1373-1374.

99.  Rubin, R.A., S.B. Levy, R.L. Heinrikson and F.J. Kezdy (1990)  Gene duplication in the evolution of the two complementing domains of gram-negative tetracycline efflux proteins. Gene 87:7-13.

100.  DeFlaun, M.F., A.S. Tanzer, A.L. Joseph, B. Marshall and S.B. Levy (1990)  Development of an adhesion assay and characterization of an adhesion-deficient mutant of Pseudomonas fluorescens.  Appl. Env. Microb. 56:112-119.

101.  Rubin, R.A. and S.B. Levy (1990)  Interdomain hybrid Tet proteins confer tetracycline resistance only when derived from more closely related members of the tet gene family.  J. Bacteriol. 172:2303-2312.

102.  Hickman, R. K., L. M. McMurry and S. B. Levy (1990)  Overproduction and purification of the Tn10-specified inner membrane tetracycline resistance protein Tet using fusions to galactosidase.  Molec. Microbiol. 4:1241-1251.

103.  Marshall, B.M., D. Petrowski and S.B. Levy (1990)  Inter and intraspecies spread of E. coli in a farm environment in the absence of antibiotic usage.  Proc. Nat'l Acad. Sci (USA) 87:6609-6613.

104.  Slapak, C.A., J.C. Daniel, and S.B. Levy (1990)  Sequential emergence of distinct resistance phenotypes in murine erythroleukemia cells under adriamycin selection: decreased anthracycline uptake precedes increased P-glycoprotein expression.  Cancer Res. 50:7895-7901.

105.  Al-achi, B.J., E. Platsouka, and S.B. Levy (1991)  Competitive colonization between Pseudomonas species in sterile soils.  Current Microbiol. 23:97-104.

106.  Rubin, R.A. and S.B. Levy (1991)  Domains of Tet protein interact productively to mediate tetracycline resistance when present on separate polypeptides.  J. Bacteriol. 173:4503- 4509.

107.  Hachler, H., S.P. Cohen, and S.B. Levy (1991)  MarA: a regulated locus which controls expression of chromosomal multiple antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli.  J. Bacteriol. 173:5532-5538.

108.  Slapak, C.A., J-M. Lecerf, J.C. Daniel and S.B. Levy (1992)  Energy dependent accumulation of daunorubicin into subcellular compartments of human leukemia cells and cytoplasts.  J. Biol. Chem. 267:10638-10644.

109.  McMurry, L.M., M. Stephan, and S.B. Levy (1992)  Decreased function of the class B tetracycline efflux protein Tet with mutations at aspartate 15, a putative intramembrane residue.  J. Bacteriol. 174:6294-6297.

110.  Seoane, A., A. Sabbaj, L.M. McMurry and S.B. Levy (1992)  Multiple antibiotic susceptibility associated with inactivation of the prc gene.  J. Bacteriol. 174:7844-7847.

111.  Cohen, S.P., H. Hachler, and S.B. Levy (1993)  Genetic and functional analysis of the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) locus in Escherichia coli.  J. Bacteriol. 175:1484- 1492.

112.  Nelson, M.L., B.H. Park, J.S. Andrews, V.A. Georgian, R.C. Thomas and S.B. Levy (1993) Inhibition of the tetracycline efflux antiport protein by 13-thio-substituted 5-hydroxy-6- deoxy tetracyclines.  J. Med. Chem. 36:370-377.

113.  Summers, A.O., J. Wireman, M.J. Vimy, F.L. Lorscheider, B. Marshall, S.B. Levy, S. Bennett, and L. Billard (1993)  Mercury released from dental "silver" fillings provokes an increase in mercury- and antibiotic-resistant bacteria in oral and intestinal floras of primates. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37:825-834.

114.  Cohen, S.P., W. Yan and S.B. Levy (1993)  A multidrug resistance regulatory chromosomal locus is widespread among enteric bacteria.  J. Inf. Dis. 168:484-488.

115.  Cohen, S.P., S.B. Levy, J. Foulds, and J.L. Rosner (1993)  Salicylate induction of antibiotic resistance in E. coli:  activation of the mar operon and a mar-independent pathway.  J. Bacteriol. 175:7856-7862.

116.  Sloan, J., L.M. McMurry, D. Lyras, S.B. Levy and J.I. Rood (1993)  The Clostridium perfringens TetP determinant comprises two overlapping genes:  tetA(P) which mediates active tetracycline efflux and tetB(P) which is related to the ribosomal protection family of tetracycline resistance determinants. Molec. Microbiol. 11:403-415.

117.  Hansen, L.M., L.M. McMurry, S.B. Levy and D.C. Hirsh (1993)  A new tetracycline resistance determinant (TetH) from Pasteurella multocida specifying active efflux of tetracycline.  Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37:2699-2705.

118.  Leonardson, K.E. and S.B. Levy (1994)  Distribution of histone variants and globin genes in micrococcal nuclease-generated subfractions of chromatin from Friend erythroleukemia cells at different malignant states.  J. Cell. Biochem. 54:110-121.

119.  Ariza, R.R., S.P. Cohen, N. Bachhawat, S.B. Levy and B. Demple (1994) Repressor mutations in the marRAB operon that activate oxidative stress genes and multiple antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli.  J. Bacteriol. 176:143-148.

120.  McMurry, L.M., A.M. George, and S.B. Levy (1994)  Active efflux of chloramphenicol in susceptible Escherichia coli and in multiple antibiotic resistant (Mar) mutants.  Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38:542-546.

121.  Nelson, M.L., B.H. Park and S.B. Levy (1994)  Molecular requirements for the inhibition of the tetracycline antiport protein and the effect of potent inhibitors on growth of tetracycline resistant bacteria.  J. Med. Chem. 37:1355-1361.

122.  DeFlaun, M.F., B.M. Marshall, E.-P. Kulle, and S.B. Levy (1994)  Tn5 insertion mutants of Pseudomonas fluorescens defective in adhesion to soil and seeds.  Appl. Env. Microb. 60:2637-2642.

123.  Slapak, C.A., P.M. Fracasso, R.L. Martell, D.L. Toppmeyer, J.-M. Lecerf and S.B. Levy  (1994)  Overexpression of the multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP) gene in vincristine but not doxorubicin-selected multidrug resistant murine erythroleukemia cells.  Cancer Res. 54:5607-5613.

124.  Seoane, A.S. and S.B. Levy  (1995)  Identification of new genes regulated by the marRAB operon in Escherichia coli.  J. Bacteriol. 177:530-535.

125.  Seoane, A. and S.B. Levy (1995)  Characterization of MarR, the repressor of the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) operon in Escherichia coli.  J. Bacteriol. 177:3414-3419.

126.  Krimsky, S., R. Wrubel, I. Naess, S. B. Levy, R. Wetzler, and B. Marshall.  (1995).  Standardized microcosms in microbial risk assessment:  Uses and limitations of microcosms for pre-release risk assessment of genetically engineered soilborne bacteria.  Bioscience 45:590-599.

127.  McMurry, L.M. and S.B. Levy  (1995)  The NH2-terminal half of the Tn10-specified tetracycline efflux protein TetA contains a dimerization domain.  J. Biol. Chem.  270:22752-22757.

128.  Hachler, H., S.P. Cohen and S.B. Levy  (1996)  Untranslated peptide sequence upstream of MarA in Escherichia coli is related to the effector-binding domain of XylS from the TOL plasmid in Pseudomonas putida.  J. Mol. Evol. 42:409-413.

129.  Maneewannakul, K. and S.B. Levy (1996) Identification of Mar mutants among clinical isolates of quinolone resistant Escherichia coli.  Antimicrob.  Agents Chemother.  40: 1695-1698

130.  Aldema, M.L., L.M. McMurry, A.R. Walmsley and S.B. Levy (1996)  Purification of the Tn10-specified tetracycline efflux antiporter TetA in a native state as a polyhistidine fusion protein.  Molec. Microb. 19:187-195.

131.  Goldman, J.D., D.G. White and S.B. Levy  (1996) The multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) locus protects Escherichia coli from rapid cell killing by fluoroquinolones.  Antimicrob.  Agents Chemother.  40:1266-1269.

132.  Slapak, C.A., R.L. Martell, M. Terashima and S.B. Levy (1996).  Increased efflux of vincristine, but not of daunorubicin, associated with the murine multidrug resistance protein (MRP). Biochem. Pharm. 52:1569-1576.

133.  Bhushan, A., C.A. Slapak, S.B. Levy and T.R. Tritton (1996)  Expression of c-fos precedes mdr3 in vincristine and adriamycin selected multidrug resistant murine erythroleukemia cells.  Biochem. Biophys. Resistance. Commun. 226:819-821.

134.  Martell, R.L., C.A. Slapak and S.B. Levy (1997)  Effect of glucose transport inhibitors on vincristine efflux in multidrug resistant murine erythroleukemia cells overexpressing the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) and two glucose transport proteins, GLUT1 and GLUT3.  Brit. J. Cancer 75:161-168.

135.  Draper, M.P., R.L. Martell and S.B. Levy (1997).  Active efflux of the free acid form of the fluorescent dye 2',7'-bis (2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein in multidrug- resistance-protein overexpressing murine and human leukemia cells.  Eur. J. Biochem. 243:219-224.

136.  Draper, M.P., R.L. Martell and S.B. Levy (1997).  Indomethacin-mediated reversal of multidrug resistance and drug efflux in human and murine cell lines overexpressing MRP, but not P-glycoprotein.  Brit. J. Cancer 75:810-815.

137.  Fracasso, P., C.A. Slapak, S. Nair, D. Modrak, M. P. Draper, J.M. LeCerf and S.B. Levy. (1997) Differential changes in genome structure and expression of the mdr gene family in multidrug resistant murine erythroleukemia cell lines.  Oncol. Res. 9:183-191.

138.  Modrak, David E., M.P. Draper, and S.B.Levy. (1997).  Emergence of different mechanisms of resistance in the evolution of multidrug resistance in murine erythroleukemia cell lines.  Biochem. Pharmacol. 54:1297-1306.

139.  White, D.G., J.D. Goldman, B. Demple, and S.B. Levy (1997).  Role of the acrAB locus in organic solvent tolerance mediated by expression of marA, soxS, or robA in Escherichia coli.  J. Bacteriol. 179:6122-6126.

140.  White, D.G., K. Maneewannakul, E. von Hofe, M.Zillman, W. Eisenberg, A.K. Field, and S.B. Levy. (1997)  Inhibition of the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) operon in Escherichia coli by antisense DNA analogs.  Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.  41:2699- 2704.

141.  Moken, M.C., L.M. McMurry, and S. B. Levy. (1997) Selection of multiple antibiotic resistant (Mar) mutants of Escherichia coli by using the disinfectant pine oil: roles of the mar and acrAB loci.  Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.  41:2770-2772.

142.  Kennan, R.M., L.M.McMurry, S.B. Levy, and J.I. Rood. (1997)  Glutamate residues located within putative transmembrane helices are essential for TetA(P)-mediated tetracycline efflux.  J. Bacteriol. 179:7011-7015.

143.  Oethinger, M., W. V. Kern, J. D. Goldman, and S.B. Levy.  (1998) Association of organic solvent tolerance and fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli.  J. Antimicrob. Chemother.  41:111-114.

144.  McDermott, P., D.G. White, I. Podglajen, M. N. Alekshun, and S.B.Levy. (1998) Multidrug resistance following expression of the Escherichia coli marA gene in Mycobacterium smegmatis.  J. Bacteriol. 180:2995-2998.

145.  Oethinger, M., I. Podglajen, W.V. Kern and S.B. Levy. (1998) Overexpression of the regulatory marA of soxS gene contributes to fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical topoisomerase mutants of Escherichia coli.  Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42:2089- 2094.

146.  McMurry, L.M., M. Oethinger and S.B. Levy. (1998) Triclosan targets lipid synthesis.  Nature 394:531-532.

147.  McMurry, L.M., M. Oethinger and S.B. Levy. (1998) Overexpression of marA, soxS or acrAB produces resistance to triclosan in Escherichia coli.  FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 166:305-309.

148.  McMurry, L.M. and S. B. Levy (1998) Revised sequence of OtrB (Tet347) tetracycline efflux protein from Streptomyces rimosus.  Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42:3050.

149.  McMurry, L.M., P.F. McDermott and S.B. Levy (1999) Genetic evidence that InhA of Mycobacterium smegmatis is a target for triclosan.  Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:711-713.

150.  Alekshun, M.N. and S. B. Levy (1999) Characterization of MarR superrepressor mutants.  J. Bacteriol. 181:3303-3306.

151.  Nelson, M.L. and S. B. Levy (1999) Reversal of tetracycline resistance mediated by different bacterial tetracycline resistance determinants by an inhibitor of the Tet(B) antiport protein.  Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:1719-1724.

152.  Levy, S.B., L.M. McMurry, T.M. Barbosa, V. Burdett, P. Courvalin, W. Hillen, M.C. Roberts, J.I. Rood and D.E. Taylor  (1999) Nomenclature for new tetracycline resistance determinants.  Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:1523-1524.

153.  Alekshun, M.N. and S. B. Levy (1999) Alteration of the repressor of MarR, the negative regulator of the Escherichia coli mar locus.  J. Bacteriol. 181:4669-4672.

154. Marshall, B., H. Shin-Kim, D. Perlov and S.B. Levy (2000)  Release of bacteria during the purge cycles of steam-jacketed sterilizers.  Brit. J. Biomedical Sciences 56:247-252.

155.  Oethinger, M., W.V. Kern, A.S. Jellen-Ritter, L.M. McMurry and S. B. Levy (2000)
Ineffectiveness of topoisomerase mutations in mediating clinically significant fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli in the absence of the AcrAB efflux pump.  Antimicrob. AgentsChemother. 44:10-13.

156.  Saraceni-Richards, C. and S.B. Levy (2000) Evidence for interactions between helices 5 and 8 and a role for the interdomain loop in tetracycline resistance mediated by hybrid Tet proteins.  J. Biol. Chem 275:6101-6106.

157.  Alekshun, M.N., Y.S. Kim and S.B. Levy (2000) Mutational analysis of MarR, the negative regulator of marRAB expression in Escherichia coli, suggests the presence of two regions required for DNA binding.   Molec. Microbiol. 35:1394-1404.

158.  Kern, W.V., M. Oethinger, A.S. Jellen-Ritter and S.B. Levy (2000) Non-target gene mutations in the development of fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:814-820.

159.  Barbosa, T. and S.B. Levy. (2000) Differential expression of over 60 chromosomal genes in Escherichia coli by constitutive expression of MarA.  J. Bacteriol. 182: 3467-3474.

160.  Wong, Rebecca S.Y., L.M. McMurry and S.B. Levy (2000) “Intergenic” blr gene in Escherichia coli encodes a 41 residue membrane protein affecting intrinsic susceptibility to certain inhibitors of peptidoglycan synthesis.  Molec. Microbiol. 37: 364-370.

161.  Yin, C-C., M.L. Aldema-Ramos, I. Borges-Walmsley, R.W. Taylor, A.R. Walmsley, S.B. Levy and P.A. Bullough. (2000) The quarternary molecular architecture of TetA, a secondary tetracycline transporter from Escherichia coli Molec. Microbiol. 38: 482-492.

162.  Saraceni-Richards, C. and S.B. Levy. (2000)  Second site suppressor mutations of Gly-247 substitution mutants of the tetracycline efflux protein Tet(B) J. Bacteriol. 182: 6514- 6516.

163.  Koutsolioutsou, A., E.A. Martins, D.G. White, S.B. Levy, and B. Demple. (2001) A soxRS- constitutive mutation contributing to antibiotic resistance in a clinical isolate of Salmonella enterica (Serovar Typhimurium). Antimicrob. Agents. Chemother. 45: 38-43.

164.  Casaz, P., A. Happel, J. Keithan, D. Read, S. Strain and S.B. Levy. (2001) The Pseudomonas fluorescens transcriptional activator AdnA is required for adhesion and motility. Microbiology 147: 355-361.

165.  Marshall, B., E. Robleto, R. Wexler, P. Casaz and S.B. Levy. (2001) The AdnA transcriptional factor affects persistence and spread of Pseudomonas fluorescens under natural field conditions. Appl. Env. Microb. 67: 852-857.

166.  Perreten, V., F.V. Schwarz, M. Teuber, and S.B. Levy. (2001) Mdt(A), a new efflux protein conferring multiple antibiotic resistance in Lactococcus lactis and Escherichia coli.  Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45: 1109-1114

167.  Wang, H., J.L. Dzink-Fox, M. Chen, and S.B. Levy. (2001) Genetic characterization of high-level fluoroquinolone resistant clinical Escherichia coli strains from China: role for acrR mutations.  Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45: 1515-1521.

168.  Alekshun, M.N., S.B. Levy, T.R. Mealy, B.A. Seaton, and J.F. Head. (2001) The crystal structure of MarR a regulator of multiple antibiotic resistance, at 2.3A resolution Nature Structural Biology 8: 710-714.

169.  Walson, J.L., B. Marshall, B.M. Pokhrel, K.K. Kafle and S. B. Levy. (2001) Fecal carriage of antibiotic resistance in Nepal reflects proximity to Kathmandu. J. Inf. Dis.184: 1163-69

170.  Barbosa, T.M. and S.B. Levy. (2002) Activation of the Escherichia coli nfnB gene by MarA through a highly divergent marbox in a class II promoter. Molec. Microbiol. 45(1):191-202

171.  McMurry, L.M., M.L. Aldema-Ramos and S.B. Levy. (2002) Fe2+ -tetracycline-mediated cleavage of the Tn10 tetracycline efflux protein Teta reveals a substrate binding site near glutamine 225 in a transmembrane helix 7. J. Bacteriol. 184:5113-5120

172.  Robleto, E.A., I. Lopez-Hernandez, M.W. Silby and S.B. Levy. (2003) Genetic analysis of the AdnA regulon in Pseudomonas fluorescens: non-essential role of flagella in adhesion to sand and biofilm formation. J. Bacteriol. 185:453-460.

173.  Bina, X., V. Perreten and S.B. Levy. (2003). The periplasmic protein MppA requires an additional mutated locus to repress marA expression in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 185:1465-1469

174.  Sapunaric, F. and S.B. Levy (2003) Second-site suppressor mutations for the serine 202 phenylalanine substitution within the interdomain loop of the tetracycline efflux protein, Tet(C). J. Biol. Chem. 278:28588-28592

175.  Schneiders, T., S.G.B. Amyes and S.B. Levy (2003) Role of AcrR and RamA in Fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from Singapore. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:2831-2837

176.  Nelson, M.L., M.Y. Ismail, L.M. McMurry, B. Bhatia, P. Viski, G. Rennie, D. Andorsky, D. Messersmith, K. Stapleton, J. Dumornay, P. Sheahan, A.K. Verma, T. Warchol, and S.B. Levy (2003) Versatile and facile synthesis of diverse semisynthetic tetracycline derivatives via pd-catalyzed reactions. J. Org. Chem. 68:5838-5851

177.  Silby, M.W., P.B. Rainey, & S.B. Levy (2004) IVET experiments in Pseudomonas fluorescens reveal cryptic promoters at loci associated with recognizable overlapping genes. Microbiology. 150:518-520

178.  Schneiders, T., T.M. Barbosa, L.M. McMurry & S.B. Levy (2004). The Escherichia coli transcriptional regulator MarA directly represses transcription of purA and hdeA. J. Biol. Chem. 279:9037-9042

179.  Aiello, A.E., B. Marshall, S.B. Levy, P. Della-Latta, E. Larson (2004). The relationship between triclosan and antibiotic susceptibilities among bacteria isolated from hands in the community. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48:2973-2979

*180.  Silby, M.W. and S.B. Levy (2004). Use of in vivo expression technology to identify genes important in growth and survival of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 in soil: discovery of expressed sequences with novel genetic organizations. J. Bacteriol. 186: 7411-4719

181.  Stelling, J. M., K. Travers, R. N. Jones, P. J. Turner, T. F. O’Brien & S.B. Levy (2005). Integrating Escherichia coli antimicrobial susceptibility data from multiple surveillance programs. Emerg. Inf. Dis. 11:873-882.

182.  Sapunaric, F. and and S.B. Levy (2005). Substitutions in the interdomain loop of the Tn10 TetA efflux protein alter tetracycline resistance and substrate specificity. Microbiology 151:2315-2322.

183.  Aiello, A.E., B. Marshall, S.B. Levy, P. Della-Latta, S.X. Len & E. Larson (2005). Household antibacterial cleaning and hygiene product use: an emerging risk factor for carriage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria on the hands? Emerg. Inf. Dis. 11:1565.

184.  Ades, S., L. Maxfield, C. Gould, G. Jones & S. Levy (2006). Selection of non-P-glycoprotein mediated high-level etoposide resistant cell lines by adriamycin with P-gp inhibitors. Int. J. Oncology 28(3):747-754.

185.  Schneiders, T. and S.B. Levy (2006). MarA mediated transcriptional repression of the rob promoter. J. Biol. Chem. 281:10049-10055.

186.  Udani, R. and S.B. Levy (2006). MarA-like regulator of multidrug resistance in Yersinia pestis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 50:2971-2975.

187.  Nicoloff, H., V. Perreten, L. McMurry and S.B. Levy (2006). Role for tandem duplication and Lon protease in the AcrAB-TolC dependent multiple antibiotic resistance (Mar) phenotype in an Escherichia coli mutant without mutations in marRAB or acrRAB. J. Bacteriol. 188: 4413-4423.

188.  Casaz, P., L.K. Garrity-Ryan, D. McKenney, C. Jackson, S.B. Levy, S.K. Tanaka and M.N. Alekshun (2006). MarA, SoxS, and Rob function as virulence factors in an Escherichia coli murine model of ascending pyelonephritis. Microbiology. 152:3643-3650.

189.  Nicoloff, H., V. Perreten and S.B. Levy (2007). Increased genome instability in  Escherichia coli lon mutants: relation to emergence of multiple antibiotic resistant (Mar)  mutants caused by insertion sequence elements and large tandem genomic amplifications.  Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51:1293-1303

190.  Sapunaric, F. and S.B. Levy (2007). Interdomain loop mutation Asp190Cys of tetracycline efflux transporter TetA(B) decreases affinity for substrate. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51: 3036-3037

191.  Bowser, T.E, V. Bartlett, M. Grier, A. Verma, T. Warchol, S.B. Levy and M. Alekshun (2007). Novel anti-infection agents: small-molecule inhibitors of bacterial transcription factors. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 17: 5652-5655

192.  Ruiz, C., L. McMurry and S.B. Levy (2008). Role of the multidrug resistance regulator MarA in  global regulation of the hdeAB acid resistance operon in Escherichia coli. J. Bacterol. 190: 1290-1297

193.  McDermott, P., L.M. McMurry, I. Podglajen, J.L. Dzink-Fox, T.
Schneiders, M.P. Draper, S.B. Levy (2008). The marC gene of
Escherichia coli is not involved in multiple antibiotic resistance. Antimicrob. Agents
Chemother. 52:382-383

194.  Silby, M. and S.B. Levy. Overlapping protein-encoding genes in Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 PlosGenet (2008) 4(6): e 1000094

195.  Kim, W. and S.B. Levy. (2008) Increased fitness of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1  leucine auxotrophs in soil. Appl. Env. Microb. 74: 3644-51

196.  Marcel, J.-P., M. Alfa, F. Baquero, J. Etienne, H. Goossens, S. Harbarth, W. Hryniewicz, W. Jarvis, M. Kaku, R. Leclercq, S.B. Levy, D. Mazel, P. Nercelles, T. Perl, D. Pittet, C. Vandenbroucke-Grauls, N. Woodford and V. Jarlier. (2008) Healthcare-associated infections: think globally, act locally. Clin Microb Infect. 14:895-907

197.  Carson, R.T., E. Larson, S.B. Levy, B.M. Marshall and A.E. Aiello. (2008)  Use of antibacterial consumer products containing quaternary ammonium compounds and drug resistance in the community. J. Antimicrob Chemother. 62:1160-62

198.  Silby, M. W., Nicoll, J. S., and Levy, S. B. (2009) Requirement of polyphosphate by Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 for competitive fitness and heat tolerance in laboratory media and sterile soil. App. Environ.  Microbiol.75:3872-3881.

199.  Silby, M. W., Cerdeño-Tárraga, A. M., Vernikos, G., Giddens, S. R., Jackson, R. W., Preston, G. M., Zhang, X. X., Moon, C. D., Gehrig, S. M., Godfrey, S. A. C., Knight, C. G., Malone, J. G., Robinson, Z., Spiers, A. J., Harris, S., Challis, G. L., Yaxley, A. M., Harris, D., Seeger, K., Murphy, L., Rutter, S., Squares, R., Quail, M. A., Saunders, E., Mavromatis, K., Brettin, T. S., Bentley, S. D., Hothersall, J., Stephens, E., Thomas, C. M., Parkhill, J., Levy, S. B., Rainey, P. B., Thomson, N. R. (2009). Genomic and functional analyses of diversity and plant interactions of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Genome Biology10(5):R51

200.  Duval, V., H. Nicoloff, S.B. Levy (2009) Simultaneous inactivation of lon and ycgE increases multidrug resistance by decreasing the amount of OmpF porin in Escherichia coli. Antimicrobial Agents Chemother. 53:4944-8

201.  Kim, O.K., L. K. Garrity-Ryan, V. J. Bartlett, M. C. Grier, A. K. Verma,
G. Medjanis, J. E. Donatelli, A. B. Macone, S. K. Tanaka, S. B. Levy, and M. N. Alekshun. (2009) N-Hydroxybenzimidazole Inhibitors of the transcription factor LcrF in Yersinia: novel antivirulence agents. J. Med. Chem. 52: 5626-5636

202.  Kim, W., M.W. Silby, S.O. Purvine, J. Nicoll, K.K. Hixson, M. Munroe, C.D. Nicora, M.S. Lipton, S.B. Levy (2009) Proteomic detection of non annotated protein-coding genes in Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1. PlosOne 4(12):e8455, doi:10, 1371/journal.pone.

203.  Roberts, R., B. Hota, I. Ahmad, R.D. Scott II, S.D. Foster, F. Abbasai, S. Schabowski, L.M. Kampe, G.G. Viavrella, M. Supino, J. Naples, R. Cordell,  S.B. Levy, R.A. Weinstein (2009) Hospital and societal costs of antimicrobial‐resistant infections in a Chicago teaching hospital: implications for antibiotic stewardship. Clin Inf Dis 49:1175–1184.

204.  Lister, I and S.B. Levy (2010). The effect of MarA-like proteins on antibiotic resistance and virulence in Yersinia pestis. Infection and Immunity 78:364-371

205.  Warner, D and S.B. Levy (2010) Different effects of transcriptional regulators marA, soxS and rob on susceptibility of Escherichia coli to cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs): Rob-dependent CAMP induction of the marRAB operon. Microbiology 156:570-578

206.  Ruiz-Rueda, C and S.B. Levy (2010) Many chromosomal genes modulate MarA-mediated multidrug resistance in Escherichia coli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:2125-2134
 207.  McMurry, L.M. and S.B. Levy (2010) Evidence that the regulatory protein MarA of
Escherichia coli represses rob by steric hindrance. J Bacteriol 192:3977-3982.

208.  Grier, M.C., L.K. Garrity-Ryan, V.J.  Bartlett, K.A. Klausner, P.J. Donovan, C. Dudley, M.N. Alekshun, S.K. Tanaka, M.P. Draper, S.B. Levy (2010) N-Hydroxybenzimidazole inhibitors of ExsA MAR transcription factor in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: In vitro anti-virulence activity and metabolic stability. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 3380-3383.

209.  Garrity-Ryan, L.K., O.K. Kim, J-M Balada-Llasat, V.J. Bartlett, A.K. Verma, M.L. Fisher, C. Castillo, W. Songsungthong, S.K. Tanaka, S.B. Levy, J. Mecsas, and M.N. Alekshun  (2010). Small Molecule Inhibitors of LcrF, a Yersinia pseudotuberculosis transcription factor, attenuate virulence and limit infection in a murine pneumonia model. Infection and Immunity 78:4683-4690.

210.  Ruiz-Rueda, C. and S.B. Levy. (2010) Use of functional interactions with MarA to discovery of chromosomal genes affecting antibiotics. Intl J Antimicrob Agents 37(2):177-8.

211.  Marshall, B.M. and S.B. Levy (2011). Microbial contamination of musical wind instruments. Intl J Environ Health Research. 5/10/11: 1-11

212.  Garbeva, P., M.W. Silby, J.M. Raaijmakers, S.B. Levy and W. de Boer. (2011) Transcriptional and antagonistic responses of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 to phylogenetically different bacterial competitors. ISME J. 5, 973–985

213.  McMurry, L.M. and S.B. Levy (2011). The periplasmic Protein MppA is not involved in regulation of MarA in Escherichia coli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55: 4939

214.  Lister, I., C. Rafferty, J. Mecsas, S.B. Levy (2012). Yersinia pestis acrAB-tolC in antibiotic resistance and virulence. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 56(2):1120

215.  Warner, D. and S.B. Levy (2012). SoxS increases the expression of the zinc uptake system ZnuACB in an Escherichia coli murine pyelonephritis model. J. Bacteriol. (in press)

215.  Silby, M.W., J.S. Nicoll and S.B. Levy (2012). Regulation of polyphosphate kinase production by anti-sense RNA in Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1. Appl Env. Microb. (submitted)

216.  Mastropaolo, M.D., M.W. Silby, J.S. Nicoll, and S.B. Levy. Novel genes involved in motility and infection function in Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1. Appl. Env. Microb. (in revision)


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