Department of Environmental and Population Health -> Lead Poisoning

Lead Poisoning

This website is intended to address the prevalence of lead poisoning and the interconnection of this issue between species and taxonomic groups.

Loon with lead fishing weight

Common Loon, in non-breeding plumage, struggling to free itself from fishing line with attached lead sinker. Sinker is on its breast, indicated by arrow. The loon probably swallowed a fish with attached broken fishing tackle.
© Photo by Latafat Correa, used with permission.






Mechanism of Lead Poisoning:
Lead exerts its toxic effects by mimicking and substituting for calcium in many fundamental cellular processes. By utilizing anion exchangers and calcium dependent channels and pumps, lead is able to cross cell membranes and bind to proteins within cells. These various proteins and calcium binding sites are not able to function properly when lead is attached. For example, within red blood cells, lead binds to hemoglobin and prevents those cells from carrying oxygen efficiently. Often, lead has up to 1000 times higher affinity for these binding sites than calcium itself, and will prevent calcium from binding. Specifically, lead has been found to bind calmodulin and increase release of neurotransmitters, as well as binding the enzyme protein kinase C to stimulate gene expression and influence many physiological processes throughout the body. When oxidized, lead can also pass quickly through the blood-brain barrier and act as a neurotoxin, accumulating in astrocytes and interfering with the dopaminergic, cholinergic, and glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems. More information on the mechanisms of lead poisoning:

Scientific studies on the mechanisms of lead poisoning:

  • Lachant, N.A., A. Tomoda and K.R. Tanaka. Inhibition of the Pentose Phosphate Shunt by Lead: A Potential Mechanism for Hemolysis in Lead Poisoning. Blood 1984. 63(3): 518.
  • Bergdahl, I. Lead binding proteins - a way to understand lead toxicity? Analusis 1998. 26: M81-M84.
  • Szymanski, M.Z.B.M., et al. Lead Toxicity through the leadzyme. Mutation Research 2005. 589(2): 103-110.
  • Trope, I., D. Lopez-Villegas, K.M. Cecil and R.E. Lenkinski. Exposure to lead appears to selectively alter metabolism of cortical gray matter. Pediatrics 2001. 107:1437-42.
  • Nihei, M.K., N.L. Desmond, J.L. McGlothan, A.C. Kuhlmann and T.R. Guilarte. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor units changes are associated with lead-induced deficits of long-term potentiation and spatial learning. Neuroscience 2000. 99:233-42.

Aquatic Birds:

Lead poisoning in aquatic birds may occur when spent lead shot is mistaken for gravel (which is normally consumed to aid in digestion) and ingested. Birds may also be exposed to lead when feeding on fish attached to lead fishing gear such as sinkers or jig heads. The Tufts Wildlife Clinic is conducting an ongoing study of the prevalence of lead poisoning in aquatic birds, particularly the Common Loon. In addition to loons, frequent victims of lead poisoning include swans, pelicans, geese, ducks, cormorants, cranes, and herons. Links to more information on lead poisoning in loons and other aquatic birds:

Scientific studies on lead poisoning in aquatic birds:

  • Spears, B.L., J.A. Hansen, and D.J. Audet. Blood Lead concentrations in waterfowl utilizing lake Coer d'Alene, Idaho. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 2007. 52(1): p. 121-128.
  • Guillemain, M., et al. Lead shot and teal (Anas crecca) in the Camargue, southern France: Effects of embedded and ingested pellets on survival. Biological Conservation 2007. 137(4): p. 567-576.
  • Svanberg, F., et al. Lead Isotopes and lead shot ingestion in the globally threatened marbled teal (Marmaronetta angustirostris) and white-headed duck (Oxyura leucocephala). Science of the Total Environment 2006. 370(2-3): p. 416-424.
  • Degernes, L., et al. Epidemiological Investigation of Lead Poisoning in Trumpeter and Tundra Swans in Washington State, USA 2000-2002. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 2006. 42(2): p. 345-358.
  • Burger, J. and M. Gochfeld, Effects of Lead on Learning in Herring Gulls: An Avian Wildlife Model for Neurobehavioral Defects. Neurotoxicology 2005. 26(4): p. 615-624.
  • Sidor, I.F., et al. Mortality of Common Loons in New England 1987 to 2000. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 2003. 39(2): p. 306-315.
  • Scheuhammer, A.M., et. al. Lead fishing sinkers and jigs in Canada: Review of their use patterns and toxic impacts on wildlife. in Canadian Wildlife Service Occasional Papers, C.W.S.o.E. Canada, Editor. 2003, Canadian Wildlife Service: Ottawa, Ontario. p. 3-45.
  • Pokras, M.A. and R. Chafel. Lead toxicosis from ingested fishing sinkers in adult common loons (Gavia immer) in New England. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 1992. 23: p. 92-97.
  • Mateo, R., et al. Lead Poisoning in wild birds from southern Spain: A comparative study of wetland areas and species affected and trends over time. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 2007. 66(1): p. 119-126

Predatory Birds:

Predatory birds are at risk of developing lead poisoning by feeding on lead-contaminated wildlife. This includes the consumption of fish containing lead fishing gear and scavenging the remains of animals left by hunters (such as deer gut piles and carcasses), which may contain lead bullet fragments. Predatory birds affected in this way include Bald and Golden Eagles, kestrels, and the endangered California Condor. Links to more information on lead poisoning in eagles and other predatory birds:

Recent scientific studies on lead poisoning in predatory birds:

  • Finkelstein, M.E., et al. 2010. Feather Lead Concentrations and 207Pb/206Pb Ratios Reveal Lead Exposure History of California Condors (Gymnogyps californianus). Environ. Sci. Technol. 44: 2639–2647.
  • Hunt, G.W., et al. 2009. "Bullet Fragments in Deer Remains: Implications for Lead Exposure in Avian Scavengers" In R. T. Watson, M. Fuller, M. Pokras, and W. G. Hunt (Eds.). Ingestion of Lead from Spent Ammunition: Implications for Wildlife and Humans. The Peregrine Fund, Boise, Idaho, USA. DOI 10.4080/ilsa.2009.0123
  • Gangoso, L., et al. 2009. Long-term effects of lead poisoning on bone mineralization in vultures exposed to ammunition sources. Environmental Pollution 157:569–574.
  • Sorenson, K.J. and L.J. 2007. Burnett. Lead concentrations in the blood of Big Sur California Condors. Ventana Wildlife Society: Salinas, CA.
  • Pain, D.J., et al. 2007. Lead Contamination and associated disease in captive and reintroduced red kites Milvus milvus in England. Science of the Total Environment. 376: p. 116-127.
  • Thacker, P.D. 2006. Condors are shot full of lead. Environmental Science and Technology. 40(19): p. 5826.
  • Pattee, O.H., et al. 2006. Lead Poisoning in Captive Andean Condors (Vultur gryphus). Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 42(4): p. 772-779.
  • Church, M.E., et al. 2006. Ammunition is the principal source of lead accumulated by California condors reintroduced to the wild. Environmental Science and Technology. 40(19): p. 6143-6150.

Other Birds and Wildlife:

Upland game birds, songbirds, and small mammals often consume lead shot and fishing sinkers when they browse for small pebbles, seeds, or other food items. Predatory species may be secondarily affected by lead when they eat animals that have been shot or have ingested lead from shot, sinkers, or the environment. Species affected by these routes include turkeys, woodcock, songbirds, fish, and reptiles. Links to more information on lead poisoning in wildlife species:

Scientific research on lead poisoning in wildlife species:

  • Engel, G., et al. Synanthropic Primates in Asia: Potential Sentinels for Environmental Toxins. American Journal of Physical Anthropology “Early View”.. Published Online: Dec 23 2009 DOI 10.1002/ajpa.21247
  • Beyer, W.N., et al. 2007. Deer Exposed to Exceptionally High Concentration of Lead Near the Continental Mine in Idaho, USA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 26 (5) p. 1040 – 1046
  • Pauli, J.N. and S.W. Buskirk. 2007. Recreational shooting of Prairie Dogs: A portal for Lead entering wildlife food chains. Journal of Wildlife Management, 71(1): p. 103-108.
  • Roux, K.E. and P.P. Marra. 2007. The presence and impact of environmental lead in passerine birds along an urban to rural land use gradient. Archives of Environmental Contaminant Toxicology, 53(2): p. 261-268.
  • Fisher, I.J., D.J. Pain, and V.G. Thomas. 2006. A review of lead poisoning from ammunition sources in terrestrial birds. Biological Conservation, 131: p. 421-432.
  • Nam, D. and D. Lee. 2006. Possible routes for lead accumulation in feral pigeons. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 121(1-3): p. 356-361.
  • Scheifler, R., et al. 2006. Lead Concentrations in feathers and blood of common blackbirds (Turdus merula) and in earthworms inhabiting unpolluted and moderately polluted areas. Science of the Total Environment, 371(1-3): p. 197-205.
  • Strom, S., et al. 2005. Lead Contamination in American Woodcock (Scolopax minor) from Wisconsin. Archives of Environmental Contaminant Toxicology, 49(3): p. 396-402.
  • Burger, J. and M. Gochfeld. 2005. Effects of lead on learning in herring gulls: an avian wildlife model for neurobehavioral deficits. NeuroToxicology, 2005. 26:615-624.
  • DeFrancisco, N., et al. 2003. Review: Lead and lead toxicity in domestic and free living birds. Avian Pathology 32: p. 3-13.
  • Schulz, J.H., et al. 2002. Spent-shot availability and ingestion on areas managed for mourning doves. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 30: p. 112-120.
  • Vyas, N., J. Spann, and G. Heinz. 2001. Lead shot toxicity to passerines. Environmental Pollution, 111(1): p. 135-138.
  • Lewis, L., et al. 2001. Lead Toxicosis and Trace Element levels in wild birds and mammals at a firearms training facility. Archives of Environmental Contaminant Toxicology, 41(2): p. 208-214.
  • Lewis, L. and S. Schweitzer. 2000. Lead Poisoning in a northern bobwhite in Georgia. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 36(1): p. 180-183.


People, especially children, are susceptible to lead poisoning via a variety of sources including lead sinkers, paint, soil, and even water and air in particular areas of the world. Information on the hazards of lead to adults and children:

Recent scientific studies on lead poisoning in humans:

  • Fadrowski, J. J., et al. 2010. Blood Lead Level and Kidney Function in US Adolescents: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Arch Intern Med. 170(1): p.75-82.
  • Pain, D.J., et al. 2010. Potential Hazard to Human Health from Exposure to Fragments of Lead Bullets and Shot in the Tissues of Game Animals. PLoS ONE 5(4): e10315. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010315
  • Iqbal, S., et al. 2009. Hunting with Lead: Association Between Blood Lead Levels and Wild Game Consumption. Environmental Research 109(8): p. 952-959
  • Gulson, B. et al. 2009. Windblown Lead Carbonate as the Main Source of Lead in Blood of Children from a Seaside Community: An Example of Local Birds as “Canaries in the Mine”. Environ Health Perspect. 117:148–154. doi:10.1289/ehp.11577
  • Hunt, W.G., et al. 2009. Lead bullet fragments in venison from rifle-killed deer: Potential for human dietary exposure. PLoS ONE 4(4): e5330. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005330.
  • Jusko, T A. , et al. 2008. Blood Lead Concentrations < 10 micrograms/dL and Child Intelligence at 6 Years of Age. Environmental Health Perspectives, 116 (2): p. 243-248.
  • Saper, R.B., et al. 2008. Lead, Mercury, and Arsenic in US- and Indian- Manufactured Ayurvedic Medicines Sold via the Internet. JAMA 300:915–923.
  • Tsuji, L.J.S., et al. 2008a. Elevated Blood-Lead Levels in First Nations People of Northern Ontario Canada: Policy Implications. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2008;80:14–8.
  • Tsuji, L.J.S., et al. 2008b. The Identification of Lead Ammunition as a Source of Exposure in First Nations: the Use of Lead Isotope Ratios. Sci. Total Environ. 393: p. 291–298.
  • Weidenhamer, J.D. and M.L. Clement. 2007. Leaded electronic waste is a possible source material for lead contaminated jewelery. Chemosphere, 69: p. 1111-1115.
  • Kosnett, M.J., et al. 2007 Recommendations for Medical Management of Adult Lead Exposure. Environmental Health Perspectives 115 (3): 463–471. doi:10.1289/ehp.9784
  • Navas-Acien, A., et al. 2007. Lead Exposure and Cardiovascular Disease- A systemic review. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(3): p. 472-482.
  • Shih, R.A., et al. 2007. Cumulative lead dose and cognitive function in adults: a review of studies that measured both blood lead and bone lead. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(3): p. 483-492.
  • Rosner, D. and G. Markowitz. 2007. The politics of lead toxicology and the devastating consequences for all children. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 50(10): p. 740-756.
  • Ronchetti, R. 2007. Fetal lead exposure and infant mental development index. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(4): p. A186.
  • Muntner, P., et al. 2007. Association of tibia lead and blood lead with end stage renal disease: A pilot study of African Americans. Environmental Research, 104(3): p. 396-401.
  • Mateo, R., et al. 2007. Transfer of lead from shot pellets to game meat during cooking. Science of the Total Environment,. 372(2-3): p. 480-485.
  • Kauffman, J.F., et al. Lead in pharmaceutical products and dietary supplements. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 2007. 48(2): p. 128-134.
  • Menke, A., et al. 2006. Blood Lead below 0.48micromol/L (10microg/dL) and mortality among US adults. Circulation, 114: p. 1388-1394.
  • Schober, S. E., et al. 2006. Blood Lead Levels and Death from All Causes, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer: Results from the NHANES III Mortality Study. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114 (10) p. 1538-1541.
  • Johansen, P., et al. 2006. Lead shot from hunting as a source of lead in human blood. Environmental Pollution, 142: p. 93-97.
  • Hu, H., et al. 2006. Fetal Lead exposure at each stage of pregnancy as a predictor of infant mental development. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114(11): p. 1730-1735.
  • Canfield, R.L., et al. 2003. Intellectual impairment in children with blood lead concentrations below 10 microg per deciliter. N. Engl. J. Med. 348 (16): p. 1517–1526.
  • Needleman, H.L., et al. 2002. Bone lead levels in adjudicated delinquents. A case control study. Neurotoxicol Teratol 24:711–717.
  • Guitart, R., J. Serratosa and V.G. Thomas. 2002. Lead-poisoned waterfowl in Spain: a significant threat for human consumers. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 12: p. 301-309.
  • Borja-Aburto,V.H., et al. 1998. Blood Lead Levels Measured Prospectively and Risk of Spontaneous Abortion. Am J Epidemiol. 150:590-7.
  • Gulson, B.L., et al. 1998. Mobilization of lead from the skeleton during the postnatal period is larger than during pregnancy. J Lab Clin Med. 131:324-9.

Domestic Animals:

Lead poisoning is a common occurrence for many domestic species in the United States and internationally. In cattle, lead poisoning commonly occurs by consumption of discarded lead-containing farm supplies, batteries, paints, and machinery. Lead poisoning of household pets such as dogs, cats, guinea pigs, iguanas, and birds also occurs, due most often to the ingestion of lead-based paint, but also to an assortment of additional sources including linoleum, fishing sinkers, toys for pets and children, curtain weights, and solder. Links to more information on lead poisoning in domestic species:

Recent scientific studies on lead poisoning in domestic animals:

  • Swarup, D., et al. Changes in plasma hormones profile and liver function in cows naturally exposed to lead and cadmium around different industrial areas. Research in Veterinary Science 2007. 82(1): p. 16-21.
  • Patra, R., et al. Tail hair as an indicator of environmental exposure of cows to lead and cadmium in different industrial areas. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 2007. 66(1): p. 127-131.
  • Krametter-Froetscher, R., et al. Toxic effects seen in a herd of beef cattle following exposure to ash residues contaminated by lead and mercury. The Veterinary Journal 2007. 174(1): p. 99-105.
  • Sharpe, R. and C. Livesey. Lead Poisoning in Cattle and its implications for food safety. Veterinary Record 2006. 159: p. 71-74.
  • Patra, R., et al. Trace Mineral Profile in blood and hair from cattle environmentally exposed to lead and cadmium around different industrial units. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A 2006. 53(10): p. 511-517.
  • Doumouchtsis, S.K., N.S. Martin, and J.B. Robins. "Veterinary" diagnosis of lead poisoning in pregnancy. British Medical Journal 2006. 333(7582): p. 1302-1303.
  • Balagangatharathilagar, M., et al. Blood lead level in dogs from urban and rural areas of India and its relation to animal and environmental variables. Science of the Total Environment 2006. 359(1-3): p. 130-134.
  • Marcal, W.S., et al. Levels of lead in mineral salt commercial mixtures for beef cattle. Journal of Veterinary Science 2003. 4(3): p. 235-238.
  • Liu, Z. Lead Poisoning combined with cadmium in sheep and horses in the vicinity of non-ferrous metal smelters. Science of the Total Environment 2003. 309(1-3): p. 117-126.
  • Palacios, H., et al. Lead Poisoning of Horses in the vicinity of a battery recycling plant. Science of the Total Environment 2002. 290(1-3): p. 81-89.
  • Dwivedi, S., et al. Lead Poisoning in cattle and buffalo near primary lead-zinc smelter in India. Veterinary and Human Toxicology 2001. 43(2): p. 93-94.
  • Casteel, S.W., et al. Estimation of relative bioavailability of lead in soil and soil-like materials using young swine. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006. 114(8): p. 1162-1171.
  • Li, W., et al. Lead exposure potentiates predatory attack behavior in the cat. Environmental Research 2003. 92:197-206.


Due to years of use in gasoline, paints, and other products, lead is present in the air, water, and soils of many ecosystems and exerts effects at all ecological levels. Human activities, such as fuel combustion, industrial processes, corrosion of leaded pipelines, and solid waste combustion, continue to contribute to lead levels in soil and water. Once in the environment, lead cannot be broken down; it can only converted to other forms. Thus, lead accumulates in the bodies of soil and water organisms including phytoplankton, shellfish, plants, and microbes. Health effects may occur in these animals and plants, or in the organisms that consume them. Links to information about effects of lead in soil, water, plants, and the environment:

Recent scientific studies on lead poisoning in the environment:

  • Flint, P.L. and J.L. Schamber. 2010. Long-Term Persistence of Spent Lead Shot in Tundra Wetlands. Journal of Wildlife Management 74(1):148–151. DOI: 10.2193/2008-494.
  • Suicmez, M., et al., Toxic Effects of Lead on the liver and gills of oncorhynchus mykiss WALBAUM 1792. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 2007. 77(4): p. 551-558.
  • Spokas, E.G., et al., Tissue lead concentration during chronic exposure of Pimephales promelas (Fathead minnow) to lead nitrate in aquarium water. Environmental Science and Technology, 2006. 40(21): p. 6852-6858.
  • Sparling, D.W., S. Krest, and M. Ortiz-Santaliestra, Effects of lead contaminated sediment on Rana sphenocephala tadpoles. Archives of Environmental Contaminant Toxicology, 2006. 51(3): p. 458-466.
  • Sorvari, J., et al., Heavy metal pollution disturbs immune response in wild ant populations. Environmental Pollution, 2007. 145(1): p. 324-328.
  • Rotkittikhun, P., et al., Growth and lead accumulation by the grasses Vetiveria zizanioides and Thysanolaena maxima in lead contaminated soil amended with pig manure and fertilizer: a glasshouse study. Chemosphere, 2007. 66(1): p. 45-53.
  • Rantalainen, M.-L., et al., Lead contamination of an old shooting range affecting the local ecosystem- a case study with a holistic approach. Science of the Total Environment, 2006. 369(1-3): p. 99-108.
  • Patel, M., et al., Renal responses to acute lead waterborne exposure in the freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquatic Toxicology, 2006. 80(4): p. 362-371.
  • MacFarlane, G., et al., The Akoya pearl oyster shell as an archival monitor of lead exposure. Environmental Pollution, 2006. 143(1): p. 166-173.
  • Wilde, E., et al., Phytoextraction of lead from firing range soil by Vetiver grass. Chemosphere, 2005. 61(10): p. 1451-1457.
  • Kaznina, N., et al., Effect of lead on the photosynthetic apparatus of annual grasses. Biology Bulletin, 2005. 32(2): p. 147-150.
  • Labare, M.P., et al., Evaluation of lead movement from the abiotic to biotic at a small arms firing range. Environmental Geology, 2004. 46(6-7): p. 750-754.
  • Scheuhammer, A., et al., Lead and stable lead isotope ratios in soil, earthworms, and bones of American woodcock (Scolopax minor) from eastern Canada. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 2003. 22: p. 2585-2591.
  • Reue, M.K. and D.J. Weiss, Anthropogenic lead dynamics in the terrestrial and marine environment. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 2002. 360: p. 2889-2904.
  • Kennette, D., et al., Uptake of trace metals by the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris l. in urban contaminated soils. Applied Soil Ecology, 2002. 19(2): p. 191-198.
  • Hui, C.A., Lead distribution throughout soil, flora, and an invertebrate at a wetland skeet range. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 2002. 65(15): p. 1098-1107.

More Lead Info:
To learn more about lead, go to these sites:

Lead Alternatives:
To learn more about lead alternatives, go to our lead alternatives page:

This list is by no means complete or definitive, but a place to start for those interested in lead poisoning. Book and articles are presented in reverse chronological order with some classic books and treatises at the end.

  • Watson, R.T., M. Fuller, M. Pokras and W.G. Hunt. (Eds). 2009. Ingestion of Lead from Spent Ammunition: Implications for Wildlife and Humans. The Peregrine Fund, Boise, Idaho, USA.
  • Pokras, M.A. and M.R. Kneeland. 2008. Lead Poisoning: Using Transdisciplinary Approaches to Solve an Ancient Problem. EcoHealth. 5: 379-385.
  • Denworth, Lydia. 2008. Toxic Truth: A Scientist, a Doctor and the Battle Over Lead. Beacon Press, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
  • Casas, Jose S. and J. Sordo (Eds). 2006. Lead: Chemistry, Analytical Aspects, Environmental Impact and Health Effects. Elsevier Inc., Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
  • Richardson, Jeanita W. 2005. The Cost of Being Poor: Poverty, Lead Poisoning and Policy Implementation. Praeger Publishers, Westport, Connecticut, USA.
  • Fitch, Alanah. 2004. Sublime Lead: The Biography of a 5000 Year Toxic Love Affair. Loyola University Chicago
  • Warren, Christian. 2000. Brush with Death: A Social History of Lead Poisoning. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
  • Markowitz G., and D. Rosner. 2002. Deceit and Denial: The Deadly Politics of Industrial Pollution. University of California Press, Berkley, California, USA.
  • Nriagu, Jerome O. 2002. Lead and Lead Poisoning in Antiquity. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY. USA.
  • Kessel, Irene and John T. O’Connor. 2001. Getting the Lead Out: The Complete Resource for Preventing and Coping with Lead Poisoning. Perseus Publishing, Cambridge, MA. USA.
  • Davidson, C. I. (Ed). 1999. Clean Hands: Clair Patteron’s Crusade Against Environmental Lead Contamination. Nava Science Publishers, Inc., Commack, New York, USA.
  • Millstone, Erik. 1997. Lead and Public Health. Taylor and Francis, Washington, DC, USA.
  • McVay Hughes, C. and C. Meyer. 1995. Get the Lead Out: NYPIRG’s Handbook for Lead Poisoning Prevention. New York Public Interest Research Group Fund, Inc. New York, NY. USA.
  • Rich, Vincent. 1994. The International Lead Trade. Woodhead Publishing Ltd., Cambridge, England.
  • Stapleton, Richard M. 1994. Lead is a Silent Hazard. Walker Publishing Co., Inc., New York, USA.
  • Needleman, Herbert L. 1992. Human Lead Exposure. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.
  • Sorensen, Elsa M. 1991. Lead (Chapter IV) In: Metal Poisoning in Fish. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Florida, USA.
  • Castelinno, N., P. Castellino and N. Sannolo. 1995. Inorganic Lead Exposure: Metabolism and Intoxication. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Florida, USA.
  • Lansdown, Richard and William Yule (Eds). 1986. The Lead Debate: The Environment, Toxicology and Child Health. Croom Helm Ltd. Beckenham, Kent, UK.
  • Mahaffey, K.R. (ed). 1985. Dietary and Environmental Lead: Human Health Effects. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
  • Nriagu, J. 1983. Lead and Lead Poisoning in Antiquity. Academic Press,: New York, NY, USA.
  • Lynam, Donald R., L. G. Piantanida and J.F. Cole (eds). 1981 Environmental Lead. Academic Press,: New York, NY, USA.
  • Jernigan, E.L. et al. 1973. Lead Poisoning in Man and the Environment: Collected Papers. MSS Information Corp.: New York, NY. USA.
  • Erichsen Jones, J.R. 1964. Lead, Zinc and Copper. In: Fish and River Pollution. Butterworth & Co. Publishers Ltd, London, England.
  • Cantarow, Abraham and Max Trumper. 1944. Lead Poisoning. The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
  • Legge, T.M., and K.W. Goadby. 1912. Lead Poisoning and Lead Absorption: The Symptoms, Pathology and Prevention. Kissinger Publishing Rare Reprints, Whitefish, Montana, USA. ISBN: 0548565864
  • Grinnell, G.B. 1894. Lead Poisoning. Forest and Stream 42:117-118.
  • Dana, Samuel, L. 1850. Lead Diseases: A Treatise from the French of L. Tanquerel des Planches with Notes and Additions on the Use of Lead Pipe and Its Substitutes. Tappan Whittemore & Mason, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
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